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    Any ache or pain arising in the ear. Technically it may be called otalgia or otodynia.


An unpleasant sensory or emotional experience primarily associated with tissue damage, or described in terms of tissue damage, or both.

The hearing organ. There are three sections of the ear, according to the anatomy textbooks. They are the outer ear (the part we see along the sides of our head behind the temples), the middle ear, and the inner ear. But in terms of function, the ear has four parts: those three and the brain. Hearing thus involves all parts of the ear as well as the auditory cortex of the brain. The external ear helps concentrate the vibrations of air on the ear drum and make it vibrate. These vibrations are transmitted by a chain of little bones in the middle ear to the inner ear. There they stimulate the fibers of the auditory nerve to transmit impulses to the brain.


Pain in the ear.


Redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries, often due to inflammation or infection.

One of two chemicals (the other is norepinephrine) released by the adrenal gland that increases the speed and force of heart beats. It dilates the airways to improve breathing and narrows blood vessels in the skin and intestine so that an increased flow of blood reaches the muscles and allows them to cope with the demands of exercise.

Endoplasmic reticulum
A network or system of folded membranes and interconnecting tubules distributed within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The membranes form enclosed or semienclosed spaces. The endoplasmic reticulum functions in storage and transport, and as a point of attachment of ribosomes during protein synthesis.

An antibiotic derived from the bacterium Streptomyces erythreus which is especially effective against gram positive bacteria. This antibiotic is often used to treat people who are allergic to penicillin, to treat penicillin-resistant infections and acne.

Lung disease where the alveoli -parts of the lungs where gas is exchanged- have lost their elasticity. Breathing becomes increasingly difficult, and emphysema patients have to use other muscles to breathe out. The main cause of emphysema is smoking.


Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in the family Ephedraceae and order Ephedrales. These plants occur in dry climates over a wide area mainly in the Northern Hemisphere, across southern Europe, north Africa, southwest and central Asia, southwestern North America, and, in the Southern Hemisphere, in South America south to Patagonia. They are also called Joint-pine, Jointfir, yellow horse, country mallow, squaw tea or Mormon Tea. The Chinese species are known as Ma huang.

Ecstasy, or MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine), is a synthetic drug that acts simultaneously as a stimulant and a hallucinogen. Users sometimes take Ecstasy for the sense of well-being, the sensory distortions caused by the drug, or to stay awake. Ecstasy has been shown to cause brain damage in animals.

A "wandering" blood clot.

A viral infection of the brain.

Euphoria represents a feeling of well-being or elation; may be drug related. The opposite of euphoria is known as dysphoria.

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