Dopamine
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  Dopamine



Dopamine

    A neurotransmitter that works in an axis with serotonin.

RELATED TERMS
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Neurotransmitter
Specialized chemical messenger (eg, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin) that sends a message from one nerve cell to another. Most neurotransmitters play different roles throughout the body, many of which are not yet known.

Axis
"The axis is the second cervical vertebra (symbol: C2). It is called the ""axis"" because the uppermost cervical vertebra (called the atlas) rotates about the odontoid process of C2. The joint between the axis and atlas is a pivot type of joint. It allows the head turn."

Serotonin
A neurotransmitter important in filtering out information. If its levels are low, it can be the underlying cause of depression and violence.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Dopa
A precursor (forerunner) of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter (messenger) in the brain. Dopa is used in the treatment of Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is believed to be related to low levels of dopamine in certain parts of the brain. When dopa is taken by mouth, it crosses through the blood-brain barrier. Once it has crossed from the bloodstream into the brain, it is converted to dopamine. The resulting increase in dopamine concentrations in the brain is thought to improve nerve conduction and to assist in lessening the movement disorders in Parkinson disease.

Dopa decarboxylase
An enzyme present in the body that converts levodopa to dopamine.

Dopa decarboxylase inhibitors
Anti-Parkinson drugs that block the enzyme dopa decarboxylase.

Dopa Oxidase
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.

Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD)
A condition that typically begins in childhood or adolescence with progressive difficulty in walking and, in some cases, spasticity and can be successfully treated with drugs. Segawa dystonia is an important variant of DRD. In Segawa dystonia, the symptoms fluctuate during the day from relative mobility in the morning to increasing disability in the afternoon and evening and after exercise. DRD may not only be rare but also rarely diagnosed since it mimics some forms of cerebral palsy.

DOPAC
A metabolite of L-DOPA.

Dopamine Acetyltransferase
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to arylamines. They have wide specificity for aromatic amines, particularly serotonin, and can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without CoA. EC 2.3.1.5.

Dopamine Agents
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.

Dopamine Agonist
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.

Dopamine Agonists
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.

Dopamine Antagonists
Drugs that bind to but do not activate dopamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup.

Dopamine D1 Receptor
A class of dopamine receptors identified by their binding profiles for synthetic ligands, their molecular biology, and, perhaps, by their mode of action.

Dopamine D1 Receptors
A class of dopamine receptors identified by their binding profiles for synthetic ligands, their molecular biology, and, perhaps, by their mode of action.

Dopamine D2 Receptor
A class of dopamine receptors identified by their binding profiles for synthetic ligands, their molecular biology, and, perhaps, their mode of action.

Dopamine D2 Receptors
A class of dopamine receptors identified by their binding profiles for synthetic ligands, their molecular biology, and, perhaps, their mode of action.

Dopamine Drugs
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.

Dopamine hcl
Dopamine hcl is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dopamine hydrochloride.

Dopamine hcl and dextrose 5 per cent
Dopamine hcl and dextrose 5 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dopamine hydrochloride.

Dopamine hcl and dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Dopamine hcl and dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dopamine hydrochloride.

Dopamine hcl in dextrose 5 per cent
Dopamine hcl in dextrose 5 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dopamine hydrochloride.

Dopamine hcl in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Dopamine hcl in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dopamine hydrochloride.

Dopamine Hydrochloride
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.

Dopamine Receptor
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Dopamine Receptor Agonist
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.

Dopamine Receptor Agonists
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.

Dopamine Receptor Antagonists
Drugs that bind to but do not activate dopamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup.

Dopamine Receptors
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.

Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.

Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.

Dopamine-D1 Receptor
A class of dopamine receptors identified by their binding profiles for synthetic ligands, their molecular biology, and, perhaps, by their mode of action.

Dopamine-D2 Receptor
A class of dopamine receptors identified by their binding profiles for synthetic ligands, their molecular biology, and, perhaps, their mode of action.

Dopaminergic Agents
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.

Dopaminergic Agonist
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.

Dopaminergic Agonists
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.

Dopaminergic Antagonists
Drugs that bind to but do not activate dopamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup.

Dopaminergic Drugs
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.

Dopar
Dopar is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): levodopa.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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DNA
Deoxyribo-Nucleic acid. DNA molecules carry the genetic information necessary for the organization and functioning of most living cells and control the inheritance of characteristics.

Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA. A substance composed of a double chain of polynucleotides; both chains coiled around a central axis form a double helix. DNA is the basic genetic code or template for amino acid formation.

Dehdroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
A steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands. Its primary function is to inhibit the binding of cortisol.

Diabetes
A condition in which blood glucose is not well controlled. Type I diabetics make no insulin, whereas type 2 diabetics are characterized by the overproduction of insulin, but the inability of the target cells to respond to the insulin.

Dopamine

Dermatitis
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a skin irritation characterized by red, flaky skin, sometimes with cracks or tiny blisters. Dermatitis is extremely itchy, but scratching damages the fragile skin and exacerbates the problem so it is important for people with eczema to try to leave the area alone.

Dominant gene
A gene which, when present on a chromosome, passes on a certain physical characteristic, even when the gene is present in only one copy. A dominant disorder can be inherited from only one parent.

Depression
A mental state of depressed mood characterized by feelings of sadness, despair and discouragement. Depression ranges from normal feelings of the blues through dysthymia to major depression. It in many ways resembles the grief and mourning that follow bereavement, there are often feelings of low self esteem, guilt and self reproach, withdrawal from interpersonal contact and physical symptoms such as eating and sleep disturbances.

Diabetes Mellitus
A metabolic disease caused by an absolute or a relative deficiency of insulin, a hormone that controls how the body processes glucose, protein, and fats. When the body's insulin supply is decreased, it cannot process carbohydrates and it compensates by overprocessing fats and protein. The condition is characterized by chronic high blood sugar and sugar in the urine. Diabetes mellitus can result in coma. Over time, complications can include nerve injury, blindness, kidney failure, and premature atherosclerosis with all of its complications.

Diabetic Retinopathy
Severe changes in the back of the eye, or the retina, caused by diabetes. These may include ongoing microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages or swelling in the central part of the eye (macula). The proliferative type involves the growth of abnormal blood vessels in the retina or at the optic disc with blood leaking into the jelly part of the eye (vitreous), or a detachment of the retina.

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