Dominant
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  Dominant



Dominant

   A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of that gene. (In genetic terms, a dominant trait is one that is phenotypically expressed in heterozygotes). A dominant trait is opposed to a recessive trait which is expressed only when two copies of the gene are present. (In genetic terms, a recessive trait is one that is phenotypically expressed only in homozygotes).

RELATED TERMS
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Genetic
Hereditary. Having to do with the genes.

Dominant
A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of that gene. (In genetic terms, a dominant trait is one that is phenotypically expressed in heterozygotes). A dominant trait is opposed to a recessive trait which is expressed only when two copies of the gene are present. (In genetic terms, a recessive trait is one that is phenotypically expressed only in homozygotes).

Gene
1. A unit of DNA that carries information for the biosynthesis of a specific product in the cell. 2. Ultimate unit by which inheritable characteristics are transmitted to succeeding generations in all living organisms. Genes are contained by, and arranged along the length of, the chromosome. The gene is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Each chromosome of each species has a definite number and arrangement of genes, which govern both the structure and metabolic functions of the cells and thus of the entire organism.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Domicile
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.

Domiciles
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.

Domiciliary Care
Community health and nursing services providing coordinated multiple service home care to the patient. It includes home-offered services provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospitals, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.

Dominance Hierarchies
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)

Dominance Hierarchy
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)

Dominance Subordination
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.

Dominance, Cerebral
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.

Dominance, Eye
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and neurotrophic factors.

Dominance, Ocular
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and neurotrophic factors.

Dominance, Social
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)

Dominance-Subordination
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.

Dominance-Subordinations
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.

Dominances, Cerebral
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.

Dominant gene
A gene which, when present on a chromosome, passes on a certain physical characteristic, even when the gene is present in only one copy. A dominant disorder can be inherited from only one parent.

Dominant Gene
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

Dominant Genes
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

Dominant Genetic Condition
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

Dominant Genetic Conditions
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

Dominant Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy, Type III
An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1348; Nat Genet 1993;4(2):160-4)

Dominant Ichthyosis Vulgaris
Most common form of ICHTHYOSIS characterized by prominent scaling especially on the exterior surfaces of the extremities. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

Dominant Optic Atrophies
Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.

Dominant Optic Atrophy
Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.

Dominant Parkinsonism, Autosomal
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.

Dominant Progressive Foveal Dystrophy


Dominantly Inherited Spinocerebellar Ataxias
A group of dominantly inherited, predominantly late-onset, cerebellar ataxias which have been divided into multiple subtypes based on clinical features and genetic mapping. Progressive ataxia is a central feature of these conditions, and in certain subtypes POLYNEUROPATHY; DYSARTHRIA; visual loss; and other disorders may develop. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch65, pp 12-17; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998 Jun;57(6):531-43)

Dominantly-Inherited Spinocerebellar Ataxia
A group of dominantly inherited, predominantly late-onset, cerebellar ataxias which have been divided into multiple subtypes based on clinical features and genetic mapping. Progressive ataxia is a central feature of these conditions, and in certain subtypes POLYNEUROPATHY; DYSARTHRIA; visual loss; and other disorders may develop. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch65, pp 12-17; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998 Jun;57(6):531-43)

Dominantly-Inherited Spinocerebellar Ataxias
A group of dominantly inherited, predominantly late-onset, cerebellar ataxias which have been divided into multiple subtypes based on clinical features and genetic mapping. Progressive ataxia is a central feature of these conditions, and in certain subtypes POLYNEUROPATHY; DYSARTHRIA; visual loss; and other disorders may develop. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch65, pp 12-17; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1998 Jun;57(6):531-43)

Dominatrix
A female in the sadomasochistic role of total domination and discipline.

Dominica doctor
A doctor who, being or not a citizen of that country, has been admitted to practice medicine in Dominica.

Dominican doctor
A doctor who, being or not a citizen of that country, has been admitted to practice medicine in the Dominican Republic.

Dominican Hospital
Dominican Hospital is a hospital in Santa Cruz, California (USA).

Dominion Hospital
Dominion Hospital is a hospital in Falls Church, Virginia (USA).



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Do not resuscitate order
A request not to have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) done if the heart stops or breathing ceases.

DOB
Abbreviation standing for the date of birth.

DOC
1. Acronym for "daily on call." 2. Deoxycorticosterone.

Docosahexaenoic acid
DHA. An essential fatty acid, thought to be important to the development of infants, particularly as regards their eyes and brain. DHA is present in breast milk and has been added to some infant formulas. Postnatal DHA may improve vision and some cognitive functions in infants and toddlers. DHA is an omega-3, polyunsaturated, 22-carbon fatty acid. It is present in abundance in certain fish (such as tuna and bluefish) and marine animal oils.

Dol
A unit of measurement of pain. The term dol was invented by James Hardy and his research colleagues Herbert Wolff and Helen Goodell at Cornell University where from 1950 to 1959, they carried out pioneering experiments on pain. Hasrdy, Wolff and Goodell used precisely calibrated radiant heat directed to the foreheads or hands of trained experimental subjects. They asked the subjects to report each "just noticeable difference" in the intensity of pain they experienced, and graphed their responses on the "dol" scale, in which one dol equals two "just noticeable differences." The graphs showed the effectiveness of different analgesics in relieving the pain, and the physiologic responses with different intensities of pain. From the Latin word for pain, dolor.

Dominant

Donor lymphocyte infusion
(DLI) A cancer treatment in which lymphocytes from a bone marrow donor are infused into the person who received the original bone marrow transplant. The goal of donor lymphocyte infusion is to induce a remission of the cancer by a process called the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. Donor lymphocyte infusion is basically meant to boost the GVT effect. The donor lymphocytes, which are T cells, attack and kill residual cancer cells. That is the strategy. Donor lymphocyte infusion has mainly been used to treat relapsed chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Patients with relapsed acute leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), myelodysplasia (MDS), Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma have also been treated by donor leukocyte infusion.

Donor, universal
A person who is type O in the ABO blood group system and can donate blood to all recipients.

Dopa
A precursor (forerunner) of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter (messenger) in the brain. Dopa is used in the treatment of Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is believed to be related to low levels of dopamine in certain parts of the brain. When dopa is taken by mouth, it crosses through the blood-brain barrier. Once it has crossed from the bloodstream into the brain, it is converted to dopamine. The resulting increase in dopamine concentrations in the brain is thought to improve nerve conduction and to assist in lessening the movement disorders in Parkinson disease.

Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD)
A condition that typically begins in childhood or adolescence with progressive difficulty in walking and, in some cases, spasticity and can be successfully treated with drugs. Segawa dystonia is an important variant of DRD. In Segawa dystonia, the symptoms fluctuate during the day from relative mobility in the morning to increasing disability in the afternoon and evening and after exercise. DRD may not only be rare but also rarely diagnosed since it mimics some forms of cerebral palsy.

Dorian Gray effect
Sudden aging, an abrupt change from seeming youthfulness to the reality and ravages of age, as can occur naturally or when the effects of plastic surgery and Botox treatments wear off.

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