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  Disease



Disease

   Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

RELATED TERMS
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Fetus
The stage of human development from 10 weeks' gestation until birth.

Rubella
A mild, highly contagious viral disease that can cause serious birth defects if a pregnant woman is afflicted. Women who haven't had it should make sure they're immunized before conception.

Virus
Ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts; many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Disease Attribute
Clinical characteristics of disease or illness.

Disease Attributes
Clinical characteristics of disease or illness.

Disease Clustering
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

Disease Clusterings
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

Disease Cost
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, QUALITY OF LIFE, etc. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.

Disease Costs
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, QUALITY OF LIFE, etc. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.

Disease Free Survival
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.

Disease Frequency Survey
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Disease Frequency Surveys
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Disease Management
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)

Disease Managements
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)

Disease Manifestation, Muscle
Signs and symptoms associated with diseases of the muscle, neuromuscular junction, or peripheral nerves.

Disease Manifestations, Muscle
Signs and symptoms associated with diseases of the muscle, neuromuscular junction, or peripheral nerves.

Disease Model, Animal
Animal disease whose pathologic mechanisms are sufficiently similar to those of a different human disease for the animal disease to serve as a model. The animal disease may be either induced or naturally occurring.

Disease Models, Animal
Animal disease whose pathologic mechanisms are sufficiently similar to those of a different human disease for the animal disease to serve as a model. The animal disease may be either induced or naturally occurring.

Disease Models, Autoimmune, Nervous System
Animal disease models that simulate human autoimmune disorders of the central or peripheral nervous system. Disease models have been established for the study of GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE).

Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs
Drugs that are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Disease Modifying Second Line Drugs
Drugs that are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Disease nomenclature
A system of classifying and naming diseases.

Disease Notification
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Disease Notifications
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Disease Outbreak
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes epidemics.

Disease Outbreaks
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes epidemics.

Disease Progression
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.

Disease Progressions
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.

Disease Reporting, Infectious
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Disease Reportings, Infectious
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Disease Reservoir
Animate or inanimate sources which harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs should be distinguished from vectors and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.

Disease Reservoirs
Animate or inanimate sources which harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs should be distinguished from vectors and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.

Disease Resistance
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from non-specific mechanisms such as genetic endowment, naturally occurring antiviral and bactericidal substances, phagocytosis, and constitutional factors such as body temperature, oxygen tension, and age.

Disease Resistances
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from non-specific mechanisms such as genetic endowment, naturally occurring antiviral and bactericidal substances, phagocytosis, and constitutional factors such as body temperature, oxygen tension, and age.

Disease surveillance
The ongoing systematic collection and analysis of data and the provision of information which leads to action being taken to prevent and control a disease, usually one of an infectious nature.

Disease Susceptibilities
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.

Disease Susceptibility
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.

Disease Transmission
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal (DISEASE TRANSMISSION, HORIZONTAL) or vertical (DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).

Disease Transmission, Horizontal
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one individual to another in the same generation.

Disease Transmission, Patient Professional
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.

Disease Transmission, Patient to Professional
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.

Disease Transmission, Patient-Professional
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.

Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.

Disease Transmission, Professional Patient
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.

Disease Transmission, Professional to Patient
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.

Disease Transmission, Professional-Patient
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.

Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.

Disease Transmission, Vertical
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.

Disease Transmissions
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal (DISEASE TRANSMISSION, HORIZONTAL) or vertical (DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).

Disease Transmissions, Horizontal
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one individual to another in the same generation.

Disease Vaccines, Marek
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent MAREK DISEASE, an avian disease caused by a herpesvirus.

Disease Vector
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.

Disease Vectors
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.

Disease Virus, Bornholm
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.

Disease, Acute
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

Disease, Acute Neuronopathic Gaucher
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Disease, acute respiratory
A sudden condition in which breathing is difficult and the oxygen levels in the blood abruptly drop lower than normal.

Disease, Addison
Long-term underfunction of the outer portion of the adrenal gland.

Disease, Adenohypophyseal
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Disease, Adnexal
Diseases of the uterine appendages: the ovaries, uterine tubes, and ligaments of the uterus. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, adult celiac
This condition results from an immune (allergic) reaction to gluten, a protein found in wheat and related grains and present in many foods that we eat. Sprue causes impaired absorption and digestion of nutrients through the small intestine. Symptoms include frequent diarrhea and weight loss. A skin condition called dermatitis herpetiformis can be associated with celiac sprue. The most accurate diagnostic test for sprue is a biopsy of the involved small bowel. Treatment is to avoid gluten in the diet. Medications are used for refractory (stubborn) sprue. Known under a number of other names, including celiac sprue.

Disease, Agricultural Worker
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.

Disease, Albers-Schoenberg
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures, OSTEITIS, SPLENOMEGALY with infarct, ANEMIA, and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).

Disease, Aleutian Mink
A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.

Disease, alpha-Chain
A spectrum of conditions ranging from a benign plasma cell hyperplasia to a highly malignant lymphoma of the small intestine.

Disease, alpha-Fucosidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Disease, alpha-L-Fucosidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Disease, alveolar hydatid
A parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of a microscopic tapeworm called Echinococcus multilocularis.

Disease, Alzheimer
A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgement, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)

Disease, Andersen
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of branching enzyme (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal glycogen with long outer branches. Clinical features are muscle hypotonia and cirrhosis. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2.

Disease, Anderson-Fabry
Lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A and resulting in an accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in the renal and cardiovascular systems. The disease is X-linked and is characterized by telangiectatic skin lesions, renal failure, and disturbances of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems.

Disease, Animal Parasitic
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.

Disease, Anterior Pituitary
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Disease, Anti-GBM
Glomerulonephritis, usually of a generalized proliferative crescent-forming histologic type with a rapidly progressive course, marked by circulating anti-GBM antibodies and linear deposits of immunoglobulin and complement along the glomerular basement membrane. When associated with pulmonary hemorrhage the condition is called GOODPASTURE SYNDROME. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Disease, Ape
Diseases of apes (PONGIDAE). This term includes diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.

Disease, Arterial Obstructive
Diseases in which arterial vessels are partially or completely obstructed or in which the blood flow through the vessels is impeded.

Disease, Arterial Occlusive
Diseases in which arterial vessels are partially or completely obstructed or in which the blood flow through the vessels is impeded.

Disease, Aspartoacylase Deficiency
A rare neurodegenerative condition of infancy or childhood characterized by white matter vacuolization and demeylination that gives rise to a spongy appearance. Aspartoacylase deficiency leads to an accumulation of N-acetylaspartate in astrocytes. Inheritance may be autosomal recessive or the illness may occur sporadically. This illness occurs more frequently in individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. The neonatal form features the onset of hypotonia and lethargy at birth, rapidly progressing to coma and death. The infantile form features developmental delay, DYSKINESIAS, hypotonia, spasticity, blindness, and megalencephaly. The juvenile form is characterized by ATAXIA; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEMENTIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p944; Am J Med Genet 1988 Feb;29(2):463-71)

Disease, Atypical Inclusion-Body
A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.

Disease, Autoimmune
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.

Disease, Avian
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.

Disease, Azorean
A dominantly-inherited ataxia first described in people of Azorean and Portuguese descent, and subsequently identified in Brazil, Japan, China, and Australia. This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 gene on chromosome 14. Clinical features include progressive ataxia, dysarthria, postural instability, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, and facial fasciculations. Dystonia is prominent in younger patients (referred to as Type I Machado-Joseph Disease). Type II features ataxia and ocular signs; Type III features muscle atrophy and a sensorimotor neuropathy; and Type IV features extrapyramidal signs combined with a sensorimotor neuropathy. (From Clin Neurosci 1995;3(1):17-22; Ann Neurol 1998 Mar;43(3):288-96)

Disease, Azorean (Machado-Joseph)
A dominantly-inherited ataxia first described in people of Azorean and Portuguese descent, and subsequently identified in Brazil, Japan, China, and Australia. This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 gene on chromosome 14. Clinical features include progressive ataxia, dysarthria, postural instability, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, and facial fasciculations. Dystonia is prominent in younger patients (referred to as Type I Machado-Joseph Disease). Type II features ataxia and ocular signs; Type III features muscle atrophy and a sensorimotor neuropathy; and Type IV features extrapyramidal signs combined with a sensorimotor neuropathy. (From Clin Neurosci 1995;3(1):17-22; Ann Neurol 1998 Mar;43(3):288-96)

Disease, Bacterial Venereal
Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.

Disease, Bang
A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.

Disease, Barter
Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular cells, producing hypokalemic alkalosis and hyperaldosteronism, characterized by absence of hypertension in the presence of markedly increased plasma renin concentrations, and by insensitivity to the pressor effects of angiotensin. It usually affects children, is perhaps hereditary, and may be associated with other anomalies, such as mental retardation and short stature. It is also called juxtaglomerular cell aplasia. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Bartter
Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular cells, producing hypokalemic alkalosis and hyperaldosteronism, characterized by absence of hypertension in the presence of markedly increased plasma renin concentrations, and by insensitivity to the pressor effects of angiotensin. It usually affects children, is perhaps hereditary, and may be associated with other anomalies, such as mental retardation and short stature. It is also called juxtaglomerular cell aplasia. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Basedow
Hyperthyroidism associated with a diffuse hyperplastic goiter resulting from production of an antibody directed against the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor, which acts as an agonist of TSH. (Braverman, The Thyroid, 6th ed, p648)

Disease, Bazin
A type of panniculitis characterized histologically by the presence of granulomas, vasculitis, and necrosis. It is traditionally considered to be the tuberculous counterpart of nodular vasculitis, but is now known to occur without tuberculous precedent. It is seen most commonly in adolescent and menopausal women, is initiated or exacerbated by cold weather, and typically presents as one or more recurrent erythrocyanotic nodules or plaques on the calves. The nodules may progress to form indurations, ulcerations, and scars.

Disease, Bechterew
The form of rheumatoid arthritis affecting the spine. It occurs predominantly in young males and produces pain and stiffness as a result of inflammation of the sacroiliac, intervertebral, and costovertebral joints. Etiology is unknown.

Disease, Berger
Chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by recurring hematuria with only slight proteinuria and by deposits of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial areas of the renal glomeruli. It usually occurs in young males.

Disease, Bernard-Soulier
This disease is a primary problem of platelets in which the platelets lack the ability to stick adequately to injured blood vessel walls. This is a crucial aspect of the process of forming a blood clot, and as a result of this problem there is abnormal bleeding. Bernard-Soulier disease usually presents in the newborn period, infancy, or early childhood with bruises, nose bleeds (epistaxis), and/or gum (gingival) bleeding. Later problems can occur with anything which can induce bleeding such as menstruation, trauma, surgery, or stomach ulcers.

Disease, Beryllium
A lung disease caused by exposure to metallic beryllium or its soluble salts.

Disease, Besnier-Boeck
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.

Disease, Betalipoprotein Deficiency
A disorder of lipid metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait characterized by the near absence of APOLIPOPROTEINS B and apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is deficient or absent in enterocytes. Clinical and laboratory findings include acanthocytosis, hypocholesterolemia, peripheral neuropathy, posterior column degeneration, ataxia, and steatorrhea. Intellectual abilities may also be impaired. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118; Curr Opin Lipidol 1994 Apr;5(2):81-6)

Disease, Binswanger
An imprecise term refering to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)

Disease, Bird
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.

Disease, Blood
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.

Disease, Bornholm
Bornholm disease is a temporary illness that is a result of virus infection. The disease features fever and intense abdominal and chest pains with headache. The chest pain is typically worsened by breathing or coughing. The illness usually lasts from 3 to 14 days. The most common virus causing Bornholm disease is an enterovirus called Coxsackie B. Bornholm disease is also called epidemic myalgia and pleurodynia (because of inflammation of the lining tissue of the lungs).

Disease, Bouillaud
The most important manifestation of and sequel to rheumatic fever, i.e., any cardiac involvement in rheumatic fever. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Bovine
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.

Disease, Bowen
A persistent progressive non-elevated red scaly or crusted plaque which is due to an intradermal carcinoma and is potentially malignant. Atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The lesions may occur anywhere on the skin surface or on mucosal surfaces. The cause most frequently found is trivalent arsenic compounds. Freezing, cauterization or diathermy coagulation is often effective. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2428-9)

Disease, Bright
Glomerular disease characterized by an inflammatory reaction, with leukocyte infiltration and cellular proliferation of the glomeruli, or that appears to be the result of immune glomerular injury.

Disease, Brill
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.

Disease, Brill-Symmers
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the lymph nodes. The nodules resemble to some extent the germinal centers of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-lymphocytes. This class of lymphoma usually occurs in older persons, is commonly multinodal, and possibly extranodal. Patients whose lymphomas present a follicular or nodular pattern generally have a more indolent course than those presenting with a diffuse pattern.

Disease, Brill-Zinsser
Recrudescence of epidemic typhus years after the initial attack. The agent that causes epidemic typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) remains viable for many years and then when host defenses are down, it is reactivated causing recurrent typhus.

Disease, Broad Beta
A rather uncommon form of familial hyperlipemia characterized by the presence of lipoproteins of abnormal composition. The main abnormal lipoproteins are called beta-VLDL and have a different apoprotein content and a higher proportion of cholesterol relative to triglyceride than normal VLDL.

Disease, Caisson
A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.

Disease, Canavan
A severe progressive inherited (genetic) disorder of the central nervous system (CNS).

Disease, Canine
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.

Disease, Caprine
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.

Disease, Carcinoid Heart
Cardiac manifestation of MALIGNANT CARCINOID SYNDROME. It is a unique form of fibrosis involving the endocardium, primarily of the right heart. The fibrous deposits tend to cause constriction of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1307)

Disease, cardiovascular
Disease affecting the heart or blood vessels.

Disease, Cardiovascular (Specialty)
The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.

Disease, Caroli
Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. It consists of 2 types: simple, with bile duct dilatation or ectasia alone, and complex, with associated extensive hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. Benign renal tubular ectasia is associated with both types.

Disease, Carrion
Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.

Disease, Castleman
A disorder of lymphoid tissue (lymphadenopathy) with massive overgrowth (hyperplasia) of lymph nodes ("swollen glands"), most commonly affecting the nodes between the lungs (in the mediastinum).

Disease, Cat
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.

Disease, cat scratch
A bacterial infection due to a cat scratch seen most often today in people with HIV. The disease characteristically presents with swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), sore throat, fatigue, and fever, chills, sweats, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. There is usually a little bump (a papule) which may be pus-filled (a pustule) at the site of the scratch. Then more nodules appear on and under the skin. As the number of nodules increases, patients get sicker.

Disease, Cat-Scratch
A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.

Disease, Catscratch
A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.

Disease, Cattle
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.

Disease, Celiac
A disease characterized by intestinal malabsorption and precipitated by gluten-containing foods. The intestinal mucosa shows loss of villous structure.

Disease, Cerebellar
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.

Disease, Cerebellum
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.

Disease, Cerebral Arterial
Diseases of intracranial arteries which supply the cerebrum of the brain, including the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY. Included in this category are atherosclerotic, congenital, traumatic, infectious, inflammatory, and other conditions.

Disease, Cerebral Artery
Diseases of intracranial arteries which supply the cerebrum of the brain, including the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY. Included in this category are atherosclerotic, congenital, traumatic, infectious, inflammatory, and other conditions.

Disease, Chagas
A form of trypanosomiasis endemic in Central and South America, caused by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. It may follow either an acute or chronic course, the former commonly in children.

Disease, Choroid
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.

Disease, Choroidal
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.

Disease, Christmas
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)

Disease, Chronic
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

Disease, Chronic Gaucher
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Disease, Chronic Granulomatous
A recessive X-linked defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation.

Disease, chronic obstructive lung (COLD)
Any disorder that persistently obstructs bronchial airflow. COLD mainly involves two related diseases -- chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Both cause chronic obstruction of air flowing through the airways and in and out of the lungs. The obstruction is generally permanent and progresses (becomes worse) over time.

Disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD)
Any disorder that persistently obstructs bronchial airflow. COPD mainly involves two related diseases -- chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Both cause chronic obstruction of air flowing through the airways and in and out of the lungs. The obstruction is generally permanent and progresses (becomes worse) over time.

Disease, Classic Moyamoya
A chronic cerebral vasculopathy primarily occurring in childhood and characterized by slowly progressive carotid artery narrowing and occlusion at the base of the brain. An extensive network of anastomoses forms between branches of the carotid arteries, resulting in a characteristic angiographic appearance. The condition may be idiopathic (classic moyamoya disease) or occur in association with ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL; DOWN SYNDROME; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; RADIOTHERAPY induced arterial injury; NEUROFIBROMATOSIS; and other diseases. Clinical manifestations include hemiparesis, headache, seizures, and delayed mental development. In older individuals, this disease may present as SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p831; Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1997 Oct;99 Suppl 2:S36-8)

Disease, clinical
A disease with clinical signs and symptoms that can be recognized. As distinct from a subclinical illness without recognizable clinical manifestations. Diabetes, for example, can be subclinical in a person before emerging as a clinical disease.

Disease, Cochlear
Diseases of the cochlea, the part of the inner ear that is concerned with hearing.

Disease, Collagen
Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that ""collagen"" was equivalent to ""connective tissue"", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term ""collagen diseases"" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)

Disease, congenital heart
A malformation of the heart or the large blood vessels near the heart. The term "congenital" speaks only to time, not to causation; it means "born with" or "present at birth."

Disease, Conn
An abnormality of electrolyte function caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Connective Tissue
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.

Disease, Conor and Bruch


Disease, Cori
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.

Disease, Corneal
Diseases of the cornea.

Disease, Coronary
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the coronary vessels to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.

Disease, coronary artery
A major cause of illness and death, coronary artery disease (CAD) begins when hard cholesterol substances (plaques) are deposited within a coronary artery.

Disease, Coronary Artery
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the coronary arteries, leading to progressive insufficiency of the arteries (CORONARY DISEASE).

Disease, Coronary Heart
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the coronary vessels to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.

Disease, Corridor
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.

Disease, Cowden
A hereditary disease characterized by multiple ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal nevoid and neoplastic anomalies. Papules of the face and oral mucosa are the most characteristic lesion. Other changes occur in the skin, in the thyroid, the breast, the gastrointestinal system, and the nervous system.

Disease, Craniomandibular
Diseases or disorders of the muscles of the head and neck, with special reference to the masticatory muscles. The most notable examples are TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS and TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.

Disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob
A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))

Disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD)
A dementing disease of the brain. It is believed due to an unconventional (not a bacteria or virus), transmissible agent called a prion. Symptoms of CJD include forgetfulness, nervousness, jerky trembling hand movements, unsteady gait, muscle spasms, chronic dementia, balance disorder, and loss of facial expression. CJD is classified as a spongiform encephalopathy. Most cases occur randomly (sporadically), but inherited forms exist. There is neither treatment nor cure for CJD. Other names for CJD include Creutzfeldt-Jakob syndrome, Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, and spastic pseudoparalysis.

Disease, Crohn
A chronic inflammatory disease primarily involving the small and large intestine but which can affect other parts of the digestive system.

Disease, Crouzon
An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephaly, exophthalmos, hypertelorism, strabismus, parrot-beaked nose, and hypoplastic maxilla with relative mandibular prognathism. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Cushing
The constellation of symptoms and signs caused by an excess of cortisol hormone. Cushing disease (or syndrome) is an extremely complex hormonal condition that involves many areas of the body. Common symptoms are thinning of the skin, weakness, weight gain, bruising, hypertension, diabetes, thin weak bones (osteoporosis), facial puffiness and, in women, cessation of menstrual periods.

Disease, cystine transport
Commonly known as cystinuria, this is an inherited (genetic) disorder of the transport of an amino acid (a building block of protein) called cystine resulting in an excess of cystine in the urine (cystinuria) and the formation of cystine stones.

Disease, Cytomegalic Inclusion
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.

Disease, Darier
A slowly progressive autosomal dominant disorder of keratinization characterized by pinkish-to-tan papules that coalesce to form plaques. These lesions become darker over time and commonly fuse, forming papillomatous and warty malodorous growths.

Disease, De Quervain
Inflammation of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced. Friction rubs may be felt or heard (with a stethoscope) on movement. Calcium deposits may occur in the tendon and its sheath, leading to opacities on radiographs of the affected area. (Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Disease, Deficiency
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Disease, degenerative joint
Also known as osteoarthritis, this type of arthritis is caused by inflammation, breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of the joints. Among the over 100 different types of arthritis conditions, osteoarthritis is the most common, affecting usually the hands, feet, spine, and large weight-bearing joints, such as the hips and knees. Also called degenerative arthritis.

Disease, Dejerine-Sottas
A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy, HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE, HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)

Disease, Dercum
A rare disease, believed to be autosomal dominant, manifested by fatty deposits that press on nerves causing weakness and pain.

Disease, Devic
A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS in combination with acute MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE. Demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions form in one or both optic nerves and in the spinal cord. The onset of optic neuritis and myelitis may be simultaneous or separated by several months. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996 Apr;60(4):382-387)

Disease, Di Guglielmo
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.

Disease, Dog
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.

Disease, Duhring
Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.

Disease, Ear
Diseases of the ear, general or unspecified.

Disease, Eczematous Skin
Any of a variety of eruptive skin disorders characterized by erythema, oozing, vesiculation, and scaling. Etiology is varied.

Disease, Ehlers-Danlos
A heterogeneous group of inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES. The most common manifestations of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome are hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.

Disease, Emerging Communicable
Reporting of new and reemerging infectious diseases and studies that seek to improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination.

Disease, Emerging Infectious
Reporting of new and reemerging infectious diseases and studies that seek to improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination.

Disease, Endemic
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)

Disease, Endocrine Bone
Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.

Disease, Engelmann
Progressive thickening of diaphyseal cortex of long bones.

Disease, Equine
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.

Disease, Eulenburg
Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition. These disorders may be associated with abnormal muscle SODIUM CHANNEL and CHLORIDE CHANNELS. MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY and MYOTONIA CONGENITA represent two relatively common forms of this disorder. Proximal myotonic myopathy often presents with myotonia and muscle pain in early adulthood and later in life thigh muscle weakness and cataracts develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1392)

Disease, exaggerated startle
A genetic disorder also known as hyperexplexia in which babies have an exaggerated startle reflex (reaction).

Disease, Extra-Mammary Paget
A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)

Disease, Extramammary Paget
A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)

Disease, Fabry
Lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A and resulting in an accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in the renal and cardiovascular systems. The disease is X-linked and is characterized by telangiectatic skin lesions, renal failure, and disturbances of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems.

Disease, Facial Nerve
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Disease, Fahr
This syndrome is a genetic (inherited) neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium in certain of areas of the brain (including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex). Symptoms may include motor function deterioration, dementia, mental retardation, spastic paralysis, dysarthria (poorly articulated speech), spasticity (stiffness of the limbs), ocular (eye) problems, and athetosis (involuntary, writhing movements).

Disease, Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob
A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))

Disease, Feline
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.

Disease, Fish
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).

Disease, Folling
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).

Disease, Foot
Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.

Disease, Forbes
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.

Disease, Forestier
A form of degenerative arthritis characteristically associated with flowing calcification along the sides of the vertebrae of the spine and commonly with inflammation (tendinitis) and calcification of the tendons at their attachments points to bone. Because areas of the spine and tendons can become inflamed, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen can be helpful in relieving both pain and inflammation.

Disease, Fothergill
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURSYMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)

Disease, Fox-Fordyce
Chronic pruritic disease, usually in women, characterized by small follicular papular eruptions in apocrine areas. It is caused by obstruction and rupture of intraepidermal apocrine ducts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Friedreich
An autosomal recessive disease, usually of childhood onset, characterized pathologically by degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and to a lesser extent the corticospinal tracts. Clinical manifestations include GAIT ATAXIA, pes cavus, speech impairment, lateral curvature of spine, rhythmic head tremor, kyphoscoliosis, congestive heart failure (secondary to a cardiomyopathy), and lower extremity weakness. Most forms of this condition are associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 9, at band q13, which codes for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1081; N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75) The severity of Friedreich ataxia associated with expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene correlates with the number of trinucleotide repeats. (From Durr et al, N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75)

Disease, Frommel
Persistent lactation and amenorrhea following pregnancy.

Disease, Fucosidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Disease, Fumarylacetoacetase Deficiency
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Disease, Galactosylceramidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive inherited sphingolipidosis caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to an accumulation of PSYCHOSINE in LYSOSOMES of the BRAIN; PERIPHERAL NERVES; LIVER; KIDNEY; and LEUKOCYTES. In the nervous sytem there is prominent central and peripheral demyelination. The infantile form presents at age 4-6 months with psychomotor retardation, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, and tonic spasms induced by minor stimuli. Death occurs within two years. Later onset forms of this disease are characterized by a less fulminant course. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp195-7)

Disease, Galactosylceramide-beta-Galactosidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive inherited sphingolipidosis caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to an accumulation of PSYCHOSINE in LYSOSOMES of the BRAIN; PERIPHERAL NERVES; LIVER; KIDNEY; and LEUKOCYTES. In the nervous sytem there is prominent central and peripheral demyelination. The infantile form presents at age 4-6 months with psychomotor retardation, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, and tonic spasms induced by minor stimuli. Death occurs within two years. Later onset forms of this disease are characterized by a less fulminant course. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp195-7)

Disease, Gaucher, Acute Neuronopathic
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Disease, Gaucher, Chronic
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Disease, Genetic Skin
Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.

Disease, Genitourinary
Diseases of the urogenital tract.

Disease, Gierke
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Disease, Gilbert
A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.

Disease, Glucocerebrosidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Disease, Glycogen Storage
A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.

Disease, Goat
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.

Disease, Graefe
A mitochondrial myopathy characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the levator palpebrae, orbicularis oculi, and extraocular muscles. Ragged-red fibers and atrophy are found on muscle biopsy. Familial and sporadic forms may occur. Disease onset is usually in the first or second decade of life, and the illness slowly progresses until usually all ocular motility is lost. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1422)

Disease, Graft-Versus-Host
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.

Disease, Graft-vs-Host
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.

Disease, Graves
Generalized diffuse overactivity ("toxicity") of the entire thyroid gland which becomes enlarged into a goiter. Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. There are three components to Graves disease: Hyperthyroidism (the presence of too much thyroid hormone), Ophthalmopathy specifically involving exophthalmos (protrusion of the eyeballs), Dermopathy with skin lesions.

Disease, Greasy Pig
An acute generalized dermatitis of pigs which occurs from 5 to 35 days of age, characterized by sudden onset, with morbidity of 10 to 90% and mortality of 5 to 90%. The lesions are caused by Staphylococcus hyos but the bacterial agent is unable to penetrate the intact skin. Abrasions on the feet and legs or lacerations on the body frequently precede infection. In acute cases, a vesicular-type virus may be the predisposing factor. The causative organism is inhibited by most antibiotics. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed)

Disease, gum
Inflammation of the soft tissue (gingiva) and abnormal loss of bone that surrounds the teeth and holds them in place. Gum disease is caused by toxins secreted by bacteria in "plaque" that accumulate over time along the gum line. This plaque is a mixture of food, saliva, and bacteria. Early symptoms of gum disease include gum bleeding without pain. Pain is a symptom of more advanced gum disease as the loss of bone around the teeth leads to the formation of gum pockets. Bacteria in these pockets cause gum infection, swelling, pain, and further bone destruction. Advanced gum disease can cause loss of otherwise healthy teeth.

Disease, Gunther
Autosomal recessive porphyria characterized by splenomegaly, photosensitivity, hemolytic anemia, and the appearance of red urine in early infancy. This condition results from increased synthesis of uroporphyrinogen I relative to uroporphyrinogen III in bone marrow normoblasts.

Disease, Habermann
A subgroup of PARAPSORIASIS itself divided into acute and chronic forms. The acute form is characterized by the abrupt onset of a generalized, reddish-brown, maculopapular eruption. Lesions may be vesicular, hemorrhagic, crusted, or necrotic. Histologically the disease is characterized by epidermal necrolysis. The chronic form shows milder skin changes with necrosis. An important variant of the chronic form is LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS.

Disease, Hammond
A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY, NERVOUS SYSTEM. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76)

Disease, hand-foot-and-mouth
A viral syndrome with a rash on the hands and feet and in the mouth. The internal rash (the enanthem) consists of blisters and little ulcers that may involve not only the lining of the mouth but also the gums, palate, and tongue. The external rash on the body (the exanthem) typically affects the hands (most commonly), feet and, sometimes, the buttocks. There may also be sore throat, irritability, decreased appetite, and fever.

Disease, Hansen
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.

Disease, Hashimoto
Progressive enlargement of the thyroid gland, often associated with hypothyroidism.

Disease, Heart Valve
Diseases caused by or resulting in abnormal functioning of heart valves.

Disease, Heartwater
A tick-borne septicemic disease of ruminants caused by Cowdria ruminantium.

Disease, Heartworm
Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man.

Disease, Heberden
There are two different Heberden diseases: 1. Angina pectoris, chest pain that is often severe and crushing, due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle. 2. Osteoarthritis of the small joints with nodules (Heberden nodes) in and about the last joint of the finger.

Disease, Heck
Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)

Disease, Hematologic
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.

Disease, Hematological
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.

Disease, Hemoglobin C
A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.

Disease, Hemoglobin H
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.

Disease, Hemoglobin S
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.

Disease, Hemoglobin SC
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.

Disease, hemolytic of the newborn
Abnormal breakup of red blood cells in the fetus or newborn.

Disease, Hepatic Veno-Occlusive
Blockage of the small- or medium-sized hepatic veins due to nonthrombotic subendothelial edema which may progress to fibrosis.

Disease, Hereditary Eye
Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.

Disease, Hereditary Neurodegenerative
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Disease, Hers
A hepatic GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE, LIVER FORM) activity.

Disease, Hirschsprung
A congenital abnormality (birth defect) of the bowel in which there is absence of the ganglia (nerves) in the wall of the bowel. Nerves are missing starting at the anus and extending a variable distance up the bowel. This results in megacolon (massive enlargement of the bowel) above the point where the nerves are missing. (The nerves are needed to assist in the natural movement of the muscles in the lining of our bowels which move bowel contents through.)

Disease, His
Named for the Swiss physician Wilhelm His, Jr. (who also described the bundle of His in the heart), this is a louse-borne disease first recognized in the trenches of World War I and so was called trench fever. Urban trench fever occurs among the homeless people and people with alcoholism today. The cause of trench fever is Bartonella quintana (also called Rochalimaea quintana), an unusual rickettsial organism that multiplies in the gut of the body louse. Transmission of the rickettsia to people can occur by rubbing infected louse feces into abraded (scuffed) skin or into the conjunctivae (whites of the eyes). The disease is classically a 5-day fever. The onset of symptoms is sudden with high fever, severe headache, back pain and leg pain and a fleeting rash. Recovery takes a month or more. Relapses are common.

Disease, Hodgkin
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue, and the presence of large, usually multinucleate, cells (REED-STERNBERG CELLS) of unknown origin.

Disease, Hodgkin (adult)
A type of lymphoma (cancer of the lymphatic system). The most common symptom is painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin. Hodgkin disease is diagnosed when abnormal tissue is detected by a pathologist after a biopsy of an enlarged lymph node. Treatment usually includes radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Regular follow-up examinations are important after treatment. Patients treated for Hodgkin disease have an increased risk of developing other types of cancer later in life, especially leukemia.

Disease, Hodgkins
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue, and the presence of large, usually multinucleate, cells (REED-STERNBERG CELLS) of unknown origin.

Disease, Homologous Wasting
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.

Disease, Horse
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.

Disease, Horton
A systemic autoimmune vasculitis occurring primarily in people over the age of 50. Pathologic features include a necrotizing panarteritis including granulomas and giant cells. There is a predilection for involvement of central nervous system blood vessels and the most frequent neurologic complication is an OPTIC NEUROPATHY, ISCHEMIC. Large blood vessels may become involved, including the aorta. Clinical manifestations may include myalgias, weight loss, headache, visual loss, necrosis of the skin or tongue, and chest discomfort. Superficial scalp arteries may become tender and enlarged. A related condition, juvenile temporal arteritis, tends to occur in the first or second decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p856)

Disease, Huntington
An hereditary disorder with mental and physical deterioration leading to death. Although characterized as an "adult-onset" disease (as is usually the case), we have seen children with full-blown Huntington disease. Huntington disease describes an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with high penetrance (a high proportion of persons with the gene develop the disease). The characteristic findings of Huntington disease are caused by loss of neurons (nerve cells) in the brain.

Disease, Hurst
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Disease, hyaline membrane
Respiratory disease of the newborn, especially the premature infant, in which a membrane composed of proteins and dead cells lines the alveoli (the tiny air sacs in the lung), making gas exchange difficult or impossible.

Disease, Hyaline Membrane
A disorder affecting newborn infants (usually premature) characterized pathologically by the development of a hyaline-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory passages. Extensive atelectasis is attributed to the lack of surfactant. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, hydroxyapatite crystal
The inflammation caused by hydroxyapatite crystals has been referred to as hydroxyapatite crystal disease.Hydroxyapatite is a major component and an essential ingredient of normal bone and teeth, makes up bone mineral and the matrix of teeth, and gives bones and teeth their rigidity.

Disease, Hypothalamic
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Disease, Hypoxanthine-Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Deficiency
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)

Disease, I-Cell
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. Mental retardation and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)

Disease, Iatrogenic
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by the patient during the course of treatment.

Disease, Ileal
Diseases of the ileum including the ileocecal valve.

Disease, Immune Complex
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other systemic immunologic diseases including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.

Disease, Immunologic
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated or both.

Disease, Immunological
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated or both.

Disease, Inclusion Cell
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. Mental retardation and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)

Disease, Infectious Bone
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

Disease, Infectious Skin
Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.

Disease, inflammatory bowel
A group of chronic intestinal diseases characterized by inflammation of the bowel -- the large or small intestine. The most common types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease.

Disease, Inflammatory Bowel
Chronic, non-specific disorders of unknown etiology. Includes Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Extracolonic manifestations are often associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and involve the liver, joints and skin.

Disease, Inflammatory Pelvic
Inflammation of the adnexa uteri. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Disease, Interstitial Lung
A heterogeneous group of noninfectious, nonmalignant disorders of the lower respiratory tract, affecting primarily the alveolar wall structures but also often involving the small airways and blood vessels of the lung parenchyma. ""Interstitial"" refers to the fact that the interstitium of the alveolar walls is thickened, usually by fibrosis. This group of diseases is usually inflammatory. (Dorland, 27th ed; Wyngarden, Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p396)

Disease, Iris
Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.

Disease, Ischemic Heart
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERIOSCLEROSIS), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).

Disease, Jakob-Creutzfeldt
A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))

Disease, Johne
An infectious disease caused by MYCOBACTERIUM PARATUBERCULOSIS. Characteristics include chronic debilitation and weight loss.

Disease, Joseph
A dominantly-inherited ataxia first described in people of Azorean and Portuguese descent, and subsequently identified in Brazil, Japan, China, and Australia. This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 gene on chromosome 14. Clinical features include progressive ataxia, dysarthria, postural instability, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, and facial fasciculations. Dystonia is prominent in younger patients (referred to as Type I Machado-Joseph Disease). Type II features ataxia and ocular signs; Type III features muscle atrophy and a sensorimotor neuropathy; and Type IV features extrapyramidal signs combined with a sensorimotor neuropathy. (From Clin Neurosci 1995;3(1):17-22; Ann Neurol 1998 Mar;43(3):288-96)

Disease, Joseph Azorean
A dominantly-inherited ataxia first described in people of Azorean and Portuguese descent, and subsequently identified in Brazil, Japan, China, and Australia. This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 gene on chromosome 14. Clinical features include progressive ataxia, dysarthria, postural instability, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, and facial fasciculations. Dystonia is prominent in younger patients (referred to as Type I Machado-Joseph Disease). Type II features ataxia and ocular signs; Type III features muscle atrophy and a sensorimotor neuropathy; and Type IV features extrapyramidal signs combined with a sensorimotor neuropathy. (From Clin Neurosci 1995;3(1):17-22; Ann Neurol 1998 Mar;43(3):288-96)

Disease, Kawasaki
A syndrome of unknown origin, mainly affecting young children, causing fever, reddening of the eyes (conjunctivitis), lips and mucous membranes of the mouth, ulcerative gum disease (gingivitis), swollen glands in the neck (cervical lymphadenopathy), and a rash that is raised and bright red (maculoerythematous) in a glove-and-sock fashion over the skin of the hands and feet which becomes hard, swollen (edematous), and peels off. Also called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome.

Disease, Kikuchi
A disorder that typically causes "swollen glands" in the neck (cervical lymphadeniopathy) together with fever or flu-like symptoms. Laboratory test abnormalities include elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and white blood count abnormalities (low neutrophil count and elevated lymphocyte count with atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood).

Disease, Kikuchi-Fujimoto
Development of lesions in the lymph node characterized by infiltration of the cortex or paracortex by large collections of proliferating histiocytes and complete or, more often, incomplete necrosis of lymphoid tissue.

Disease, Kimmelstiel-Wilson
Diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease). Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease is a kidney condition associated with long-standing diabetes. It affects the network of tiny blood vessels (the microvasculature) in the glomerulus, a key structure in the kidney that is composed of capillary blood vessels and which is critically necessary for the filtration of the blood. Features of Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease include the nephrotic syndrome with excessive filtration of protein into the urine (proteinuria), high blood pressure (hypertension), and progressively impaired kidney function. When severe, Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease leads to kidney failure, end-stage renal disease, and the need for chronic kidney dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Disease, Kimura
Solitary or multiple benign cutaneous nodules comprised of immature and mature vascular structures intermingled with endothelial cells and a varied infiltrate of eosinophils, histiocytes, lymphocytes, and mast cells.

Disease, kissing
Infectious mononucleosis ("mono"), a very common illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). By the time most people reach adulthood, an antibody against EBV can be detected in their blood meaning they have been infected with EBV. The illness is less severe in young children. The infection can be spread by saliva. Hence, the name: the kissing disease. The incubation period for "mono" is 4 to 8 weeks. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. "Mono" can cause liver inflammation (hepatitis) and spleen enlargement. Vigorous contact sports should be avoided to prevent spleen rupture.

Disease, Klippel-Trenaunay
A rare condition usually affecting one extremity, characterized by hypertrophy of the bone and related soft tissues, large cutaneous hemangiomas, persistent nevus flammeus, and skin varices. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Kok
A genetic disorder also known as hyperexplexia in which babies have an exaggerated startle reflex (reaction).

Disease, Kostmann
A condition with a lack of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infection). Children with this disease suffer frequent infections from bacteria which in the past led to death in three-quarters of cases before 3 years of age. This disease is also known as severe congenital neutropenia (SCN).

Disease, Kugelberg-Welander
A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)

Disease, Kyasanur Forest
Tick-borne flavivirus infection occurring in the Kyasanur Forest in India.

Disease, Lacrimal Apparatus
Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.

Disease, Lafora
A form of stimulus sensitive myoclonic epilepsy inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. The most common presenting feature is a single seizure in the second decade of life. This is followed by progressive myoclonus, myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, focal occipital seizures, intellectual decline, and severe motor and coordination impairments. Most affected individuals do not live past the age of 25 years. Concentric amyloid (Lafora) bodies are found in neurons, liver, skin, bone, and muscle (From Menkes, Textbook of Childhood Neurology, 5th ed, pp111-110)

Disease, Lafora Body
A form of stimulus sensitive myoclonic epilepsy inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. The most common presenting feature is a single seizure in the second decade of life. This is followed by progressive myoclonus, myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, focal occipital seizures, intellectual decline, and severe motor and coordination impairments. Most affected individuals do not live past the age of 25 years. Concentric amyloid (Lafora) bodies are found in neurons, liver, skin, bone, and muscle (From Menkes, Textbook of Childhood Neurology, 5th ed, pp111-110)

Disease, Laryngeal
Disorders of the larynx, general or unspecified.

Disease, Larynx
Disorders of the larynx, general or unspecified.

Disease, Legg-Perthes
A particular type of FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS occurring in children, mainly male, with a course of four years or so.

Disease, Legionnaire
A disease due to the bacteria Legionella pneumophila found in plumbing, shower heads and water-storage tanks. Outbreaks of Legionella pneumonia have been attributed to evaporative condensers and cooling towers. The bacteria thrives in the mist sprayed from air-conditioning ducts and so it can infest an entire building or airplane. Travelers are especially vulnerable in the closed space within a plane. Legionnaire disease can cause a massive pneumonia associated with collapse of the respiratory function. It can be an overwhelming and sometimes fatal illness.

Disease, Lesch-Nyhan
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)

Disease, Letterer-Siwe
Acute, disseminated, rapidly progressive form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis.

Disease, Lewandowsky-Lutz
An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papillomaviruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.

Disease, Libman-Sacks
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.

Disease, lipid storage
A series of disorders due to inborn errors in lipid metabolism resulting in the abnormal accumulation of lipids in the wrong places (Examples include Gaucher, Fabry and Niemann-Pick diseases and metachromatic leukodystrophy).

Disease, Lobstein
Autosomal dominant COLLAGEN DISEASES resulting from defective biosynthesis of COLLAGEN TYPE I and characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. There are four major types, I-IV.

Disease, Luft
A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.

Disease, Lumpy Skin
A poxvirus infection of cattle characterized by the appearance of nodules on all parts of the skin.

Disease, Lutz-Lewandowsky
An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papillomaviruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.

Disease, Lyme
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.

Disease, Lymphatic
Diseases of lymph or lymph vessels.

Disease, Lysosomal Storage
Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.

Disease, Machado-Joseph
A dominantly-inherited ataxia first described in people of Azorean and Portuguese descent, and subsequently identified in Brazil, Japan, China, and Australia. This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 gene on chromosome 14. Clinical features include progressive ataxia, dysarthria, postural instability, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, and facial fasciculations. Dystonia is prominent in younger patients (referred to as Type I Machado-Joseph Disease). Type II features ataxia and ocular signs; Type III features muscle atrophy and a sensorimotor neuropathy; and Type IV features extrapyramidal signs combined with a sensorimotor neuropathy. (From Clin Neurosci 1995;3(1):17-22; Ann Neurol 1998 Mar;43(3):288-96)

Disease, Machado-Joseph Azorean
A dominantly-inherited ataxia first described in people of Azorean and Portuguese descent, and subsequently identified in Brazil, Japan, China, and Australia. This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 gene on chromosome 14. Clinical features include progressive ataxia, dysarthria, postural instability, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, and facial fasciculations. Dystonia is prominent in younger patients (referred to as Type I Machado-Joseph Disease). Type II features ataxia and ocular signs; Type III features muscle atrophy and a sensorimotor neuropathy; and Type IV features extrapyramidal signs combined with a sensorimotor neuropathy. (From Clin Neurosci 1995;3(1):17-22; Ann Neurol 1998 Mar;43(3):288-96)

Disease, maple syrup urine
Hereditary disease due to deficiency of an enzyme involved in amino acid metabolism, characterized by urine that smells like maple syrup. The three branched-chain amino acids: (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) cannot be metabolized (processed) and build up in the blood to the detriment of brain function. Untreated maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) causes mental retardation, physical disability and death.

Disease, Marble Bone
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures, OSTEITIS, SPLENOMEGALY with infarct, ANEMIA, and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).

Disease, Marburg
A severe form of hemorrhagic fever which affects both humans and non-human primates. Caused by a genetically unique zoonotic (that is, animal-borne) RNA virus of the filovirus family, its recognition led to the creation of this virus family. The four species of Ebola virus are the only other known members of the filovirus family.

Disease, Marie-Bamberger
Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Marie-Struempell
The form of rheumatoid arthritis affecting the spine. It occurs predominantly in young males and produces pain and stiffness as a result of inflammation of the sacroiliac, intervertebral, and costovertebral joints. Etiology is unknown.

Disease, Mast-Cell
A group of diseases resulting from proliferation of mast cells.

Disease, McArdle
Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.

Disease, Mediastinal
Disorders of the mediastinum, general or unspecified.

Disease, Meleda
Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).

Disease, Menetrier
Gastritis with hypertrophy of gastric mucosa folds. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, excessive mucus secretion, and hypoproteinemia.

Disease, Meniere
A condition with recurrent vertigo accompanied by ringing in the ears (tinnitus) and deafness. Symptoms include vertigo, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, loss of hearing (in the affected ear), and abnormal eye movements. Meniere disease is due to dysfunction of the semi-circular canals (endolymphatic sac) in the inner ear.

Disease, Metabolic
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Disease, Metabolic Skin
Diseases of the skin associated with underlying metabolic disorders.

Disease, Milroy
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.

Disease, Minamata
A disorder caused by methyl mercury poisoning that was first described in the inhabitants of Minamata Bay, Japan. Minamata disease resulted from their eating fish contaminated with mercury industrial waste. The disease is characterized by peripheral sensory loss, tremors, dysarthria, ataxia, and both hearing and visual loss. Even the unborn child is at risk from Minamata disease. Methyl mercury readily crosses the placenta from mother to fetus and is teratogenic, particularly to the developing brain. Children born with Minamata disease can have growth deficiency, microcephaly (an abnormally small head), severe mental retardation and be deaf and blind.

Disease, Minimal Residual
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)

Disease, Mitochondrial
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.

Disease, mixed connective tissue
A mixture of three diseases of connective tissue (the framework of the cells of the body) -- systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and polymyositis. Patients with mixed connective tissue disease typically have features of each of the three component diseases. They also typically have very high quantities of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) and antibodies to ribonucleoprotein (anti-RNP) detectable in their blood. The symptoms eventually become dominated by features of one of three component illnesses, most commonly scleroderma. Patients can have overlap syndromes that involve any combination of the connective tissue diseases. Therefore, patients can have a combination, for example, of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (hence, the coined name "rhupus"). The treatment of mixed connective tissue disease depends on which features are causing symptoms. Treatment is often directed at suppressing the inflammation in the tissues by using anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive medications. These medications include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cortisone drugs/steroids (such as prednisone), and cytotoxic drugs (such as methotrexate, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide). Organ damage, such as in the kidneys, can require additional treatment directed at high blood pressure, etc. The abbreviation for mixed connective tissue disease is MCTD.

Disease, Monkey
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).

Disease, Morquio
Genetic disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism characterized by skeletal abnormalities, joint instability, development of cervical myelopathy, and excessive urinary keratan sulfate. There are two biochemically distinct forms, each due to a deficiency of a different enzyme.

Disease, Moschkowitz
A disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, bizarre neurological manifestations, azotemia, fever, and thromboses in terminal arterioles and capillaries.

Disease, Moya-Moya
A chronic cerebral vasculopathy primarily occurring in childhood and characterized by slowly progressive carotid artery narrowing and occlusion at the base of the brain. An extensive network of anastomoses forms between branches of the carotid arteries, resulting in a characteristic angiographic appearance. The condition may be idiopathic (classic moyamoya disease) or occur in association with ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL; DOWN SYNDROME; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; RADIOTHERAPY induced arterial injury; NEUROFIBROMATOSIS; and other diseases. Clinical manifestations include hemiparesis, headache, seizures, and delayed mental development. In older individuals, this disease may present as SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p831; Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1997 Oct;99 Suppl 2:S36-8)

Disease, Mucha-Habermann
A subgroup of PARAPSORIASIS itself divided into acute and chronic forms. The acute form is characterized by the abrupt onset of a generalized, reddish-brown, maculopapular eruption. Lesions may be vesicular, hemorrhagic, crusted, or necrotic. Histologically the disease is characterized by epidermal necrolysis. The chronic form shows milder skin changes with necrosis. An important variant of the chronic form is LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS.

Disease, Musculoskeletal
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.

Disease, Myocardial
Diseases of the myocardium.

Disease, Nail
Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.

Disease, Nairobi Sheep
An arbovirus infection of sheep and goats transmitted by ticks. It is characterized by high fever and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis.

Disease, Nasopharyngeal
General or unspecified diseases of the nasopharynx.

Disease, Nervous System
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

Disease, Neurodegenerative Hereditary
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Disease, Neurohypophyseal
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Disease, Neurologic Autoimmune
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).

Disease, Newcastle
An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by a Paramyxovirus (NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS). It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.

Disease, Norwalk
Disease due to Norwalk virus, not one but a family of small round viruses that are an important cause of viral gastroenteritis (viral inflammation of the stomach and intestines). The Norwalk viruses are all transmitted by fecal contamination of water and foods. Person-to-person transmission is far less common but has been documented. Water is the most common source of outbreaks and may include water from municipal supplies, wells, lakes, pools, and water stored aboard cruise ships. Shellfish and salad ingredients are the foods most often implicated. Eating raw or insufficiently steamed clams and oysters poses a high risk for infection with Norwalk virus.

Disease, Nose
Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.

Disease, Obstructive Lung
Any disorder marked by persistent obstruction of bronchial air flow.

Disease, Ogilvie
Functional obstruction of the colon.

Disease, Ollier
Benign growths of cartilage in the metaphyses of several bones.

Disease, Orbital
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.

Disease, Ormond
A slowly progressive condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space compressing the ureters, great vessels, bile duct, and other structures. When associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, it may be called chronic periaortitis or inflammatory perianeurysmal fibrosis.

Disease, Osgood-Schlatter
A condition involving inflammation and sometimes tearing of ligaments within the knee and lower leg. Treatment is by rest, casting if necessary, and sometimes surgery. Osgood-Schlatter disease is caused by repetitive stress or tension on a part of the growth area of the upper tibia (the apophysis). It is characterized by inflammation of the patellar tendon and surrounding soft tissues at the point where the tendon attaches to the tibia. The disease may also be associated with an avulsion injury, in which the tendon is stretched so much that it tears away from the tibia and takes a fragment of bone with it. The disease most commonly affects active young people, particularly boys between the ages of 10 and 15, who play games or sports that include frequent running and jumping.

Disease, Osler-Rendu
An autosomal dominant vascular anomaly characterized by the presence of multiple small telangiectases of the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs, associated with recurrent episodes of bleeding from affected sites and gross or occult melena. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Osler-Vaquez
A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.

Disease, Otorhinolaryngologic
General or unspecified diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.

Disease, Otorhinolaryngological
General or unspecified diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.

Disease, Ovine
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.

Disease, Papillon-Lefevre
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder occurring between the first and fifth years of life. It is characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis followed by the premature shedding of both deciduous and permanent teeth.

Disease, Papulosquamous Skin
A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.

Disease, Paranasal Sinus
Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.

Disease, Parasitic
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.

Disease, Parasitic Intestinal
Infections of the intestines with a parasite. They are caused most commonly by intestinal nematodes (roundworms) and cestodes (tapeworms). (From Merck Manual, 15th ed; Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Parasitic Liver
Infections of the liver with a parasite. They are caused most commonly by trematodes (flukes).

Disease, Parasitic Lung
Infections of the lungs with a parasite. They are caused most commonly by nematodes (roundworms).

Disease, Parasitic Skin
Skin diseases caused by arthropods, helminths, or protozoa.

Disease, Parry-Romberg
A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.

Disease, Pelvic Inflammatory
Inflammation of the adnexa uteri. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Disease, pelvic inflammatory (PID)
Despite its seeming lack of gender, this term is applied to women only. PID refers exclusively to ascending infection of the female upper genital tract (the female structures above the cervix). PID is the most common and serious complication of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aside from AIDS, among women. The signs and symptoms of PID include fever, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, extreme pain, including pain during intercourse, and vaginal bleeding. PID can scar the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and related structures and lead to ectopic pregnancies, infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and other serious consequences.

Disease, Periapical
Diseases of the periapical tissue.

Disease, Periodic
An autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by episodic fever, severe abdominal pain, pleurisy, arthritis, and a characteristic ankle rash. Disease flare-ups tend to last 3 days, and individuals are asymptomatic between attacks. Orchitis, a benign recurrent MENINGITIS, headaches, and amyloid nephropathy may also occur. (From Medicine (Baltimore) 1998 Jul;77(4):268-97)

Disease, Peripheral Vascular
General or unspecified diseases of the blood vessels outside the heart. It is for diseases of the peripheral as opposed to the cardiac circulation.

Disease, Peritoneal
Conditions or disorders affecting the PERITONEUM.

Disease, Perthes
A particular type of FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS occurring in children, mainly male, with a course of four years or so.

Disease, Pharyngeal
General or unspecified diseases of the pharynx.

Disease, Pharynx
General or unspecified diseases of the pharynx.

Disease, Pick
A form of dementia characterized by a slowly progressive deterioration of social skills and changes in personality leading to impairment of intellect, memory, and language. Dementia can be defined as a loss of intellectual abilities such as memory capacity, severe enough to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The criteria for the diagnosis of dementia include impairment of attention, orientation, memory, judgment, language, motor and spatial skills, and function. By definition, dementia is not due to major depression or schizophrenia.

Disease, Pituitary
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Disease, Pituitary Gland
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Disease, Plant
Diseases of plants.

Disease, Polycystic Kidney
Diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed cysts within the kidney.

Disease, Pongidae
Diseases of apes (PONGIDAE). This term includes diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.

Disease, Posterior Pituitary
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Disease, Postphlebitic
Post-thrombotic complications, including destruction of the valves of the deep veins and communication veins of the leg, and obliteration of the thrombosed veins rather than recanalization, resulting in chronic venous insufficiency, marked by edema, stasis dermatitis, and ulceration of the leg.

Disease, Pott
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.

Disease, Poultry
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.

Disease, Primary Moyamoya
A chronic cerebral vasculopathy primarily occurring in childhood and characterized by slowly progressive carotid artery narrowing and occlusion at the base of the brain. An extensive network of anastomoses forms between branches of the carotid arteries, resulting in a characteristic angiographic appearance. The condition may be idiopathic (classic moyamoya disease) or occur in association with ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL; DOWN SYNDROME; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; RADIOTHERAPY induced arterial injury; NEUROFIBROMATOSIS; and other diseases. Clinical manifestations include hemiparesis, headache, seizures, and delayed mental development. In older individuals, this disease may present as SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p831; Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1997 Oct;99 Suppl 2:S36-8)

Disease, Primary Myocardial
Diseases of the myocardium.

Disease, Primate
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.

Disease, Psuedo-Hurler
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. Mental retardation and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)

Disease, Pulmonary (Specialty)
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the respiratory system. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.

Disease, Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive
Obstruction of the small- and medium-sized pulmonary veins by fibrous proliferation of the intima and media or by thrombosis or a combination of both.

Disease, Raynaud
A condition resulting in skin discoloration of the fingers and/or toes when a person is exposed to changes in temperature (cold or hot) or to emotional events. This condition can occur alone or as a part of another disease (such as rheumatoid arthritis). When the condition occurs alone it is referred to as "Raynaud disease" or primary Raynaud phenomenon. When it accompanies other diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis), it is called secondary Raynaud phenomenon. The skin discoloration occurs because an abnormal spasm of the blood vessels causes a diminished blood supply. Initially, the digits involved turn white because of diminished blood supply, then turn blue because of prolonged lack of oxygen and finally, the blood vessels reopen, causing a local "flushing" phenomenon, which turns the digits red. This three-phase color sequence (white to blue to red), most often upon exposure to cold temperature, is characteristic of Raynaud disease.

Disease, Residual Minimal
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)

Disease, Retrocochlear
Diseases of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE. Retrocochlear refers to the eighth cranial nerve and cerebellopontine angle as opposed to the cochlea. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Disease, Rheumatic
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.

Disease, rheumatic heart
Heart damage caused by rheumatic fever. Treatment is by preventing reinfection with strep and by treating with heart drugs as needed.

Disease, Rheumatic Heart
The most important manifestation of and sequel to rheumatic fever, i.e., any cardiac involvement in rheumatic fever. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Ritter
This is the scalded skin syndrome, a potentially serious side effect of infection with the Staph (Staphylococcus) bacteria that produces a specific protein which loosens the "cement" holding the various layers of the skin together. This allows blister formation and sloughing of the top layer of skin. If it occurs over large body regions it can be deadly (just like a large surface area of the body having been burned). It is necessary to treat scalded skin syndrome with intravenous antibiotics and to protect the skin from allowing dehydration to occur if large areas peel off. The disease occurs predominantly in children under 5 years of age. It is known formally as Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome.

Disease, Rodent
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).

Disease, Romberg
A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.

Disease, Rosai-Dorfman
Benign, non-Langerhans-cell, histiocytic proliferative disorder that primarily affects the lymph nodes. It is often referred to as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy.

Disease, rotator cuff
Damage to the rotator cuff, a group of four tendons that stabilize the shoulder joint and move the shoulder in various directions. A common cause of shoulder pain, rotator cuff disease can be due to trauma (e.g., from falling and injuring the shoulder or from overuse in sports particularly involving repetitive overhead motions), inflammation (e.g., from tendinitis, bursitis, or arthritis of the shoulder) or degeneration (e.g., from aging). The main symptom is shoulder pain of gradual or sudden onset, typically located to the front and side of the shoulder, increasing when the shoulder is moved away from the body. A person with tears to the rotator cuff tendons may not be able to hold the arm up because of pain. With very severe tears, the arm falls due to weakness (positive drop sign). The diagnosis of rotator cuff disease can be objectively confirmed by x-rays showing bony injuries from long-standing severe rotator cuff disease; an arthrogram in which contrast dye is injected into the shoulder joint to detect leakage out of the injured rotator cuff; or, preferably, an MRI which can provide more information than an X-ray or an arthrogram.

Disease, rotavirus
A leading cause of severe winter diarrhea in young children. Aside from causing acute infantile gastroenteritis and diarrhea in young children, RV infection is typically accompanied by low-grade fever.

Disease, Runt
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.

Disease, Schaumann
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.

Disease, Schueller-Christian
Disseminated, chronic form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis. It may exhibit the classic triad of exophthalmos, diabetes insipidus, and bone destruction.

Disease, Sclera
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.

Disease, Scleral
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.

Disease, Sebaceous Gland
Diseases of the sebaceous glands such as sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous cell carcinoma (SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS).

Disease, Secondary Myocardial
Diseases of the myocardium.

Disease, Sexually Transmitted
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.

Disease, Sheep
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.

Disease, sickle cell
A genetic blood disease due to the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin, namely hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is the molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the farthest reaches of the body. Sickle cell anemia is caused by an error in a gene that makes the beta globin chain of hemoglobin. The resultant abnormal hemoglobin (sickle hemoglobin) deforms the red blood cells when they are under low oxygen conditions. Children who inherit 2 copies of the sickle gene, one from each parent, have sickle cell anemia. Children who inherit the sickle gene from only one parent do not have the disease, but will carry the sickle cell trait. Individuals with sickle cell trait generally have no symptoms. The sickle mutation occurred thousands of years ago. The sickle gene became common in malarious areas because it affords a selective advantage against malaria. In sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin molecules tend to aggregate after unloading oxygen. They form long, rod-like structures that force the red cells to assume a sickle shape. Unlike normal red cells, which are usually smooth and deformable, the sickle red cells cannot squeeze through small blood vessels.The sickle cells block little vessels depriving the organs of blood and oxygen. This leads to the periodic episodes of pain and damages the vital organs. Whereas normal red blood cells last about 120 days in the bloodstream, sickle red cells die after only about 10 to 20 days. Because they cannot be replaced fast enough, the blood is chronically short of red blood cells causing anemia -- sickle cell anemia.

Disease, Silo Filler
Pneumonia or bronchiolitis caused by inhalation of nitrogen dioxide released by silage.

Disease, Silo Fillers
Pneumonia or bronchiolitis caused by inhalation of nitrogen dioxide released by silage.

Disease, Simmonds
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.

Disease, sixth
A viral disease of infants and young children with sudden onset of high fever which lasts several days and then suddenly subsides leaving in its wake a fine red rash. The causative agent is herpesvirus type 6 so the disease is known as Sixth Disease. Also known as Exanthem subitum (sudden rash), Pseudorubella, Roseola, Roseola infantilis, and Roseola infantum.

Disease, Sixth
An acute, short-lived, viral disease of infants and young children characterized by a high fever at onset that drops to normal after 3-4 days and the concomitant appearance of a macular or maculopapular rash that appears first on the trunk and then spreads to other areas. It is the sixth of the classical exanthematous diseases and is caused by HHV-6; (HERPESVIRUS 6, HUMAN). (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Disease, Slow Virus
Diseases of viral origin, characterized by incubation periods of months to years, insidious onset of clinical manifestations, and protracted clinical course. Though the disease process is protracted, viral multiplication may not be unusually slow. Conventional viruses produce slow virus diseases such as SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL), and AIDS. Diseases produced by unconventional agents were originally considered part of this group. They are now called PRION DISEASES.

Disease, Sly
Mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by excessive dermatan and heparan sulfates in the urine and Hurler-like features. It is caused by a deficiency of beta-glucuronidase.

Disease, Sphingomyelinase Deficiency
A group of diseases marked by autosomal recessive inheritance and accumulation of sphingomyelin in cells of the RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM. They are divided into 5 subtypes: A-E. Type A (classic infantile form) is caused by a deficiency of SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE and presents at age 6-12 months with progressive hepatosplenomegaly and neurologic deterioration. Type B (non-neuronopathic form) presents in childhood with hepatosplenomegaly and pulmonary infiltrates. Type C (chronic neuronopathic form) is caused by defective intracellular cholesterol transport and is divided into severe infantile, late infantile, juvenile, and neonatal hepatitis forms. Type D (Nova Scotian Variant) is phenotypically similar to type C. Type E is an adult non-neuronopathic form. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp101-4)

Disease, Staphylococcal Skin
Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.

Disease, startle
A genetic disorder also known as hyperexplexia in which babies have an exaggerated startle reflex (reaction).

Disease, Steely Hair
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)

Disease, Stein-Leventhal
Known descriptively as polycystic ovarian (PCO) disease, this syndrome is basically an hormonal problem that causes women to have various symptoms including: Irregular or no periods; Acne; Obesity, and Excess hair growth. All women with PCO have irregular or no menses. Women with PCO do not ovulate (do not release an egg every month).

Disease, Stomatognathic
General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.

Disease, subclinical
An illness that stays below the surface of clinical detection. A subclinical disease has no recognizable clinical findings. It is distinct from a clinical disease, which has signs and symptoms that can be recognized. Many diseases, including diabetes, hypothyroidism, and rheumatoid arthritis, can be subclinical before surfacing as clinical diseases.

Disease, Sweat Gland
Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS.

Disease, Swine
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.

Disease, Takahara
A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.

Disease, Talfan
A picornavirus infection producing symptoms similar to poliomyelitis in pigs.

Disease, Tangier
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Disease, Tarui
An autosomal recessive glycogen storage disease in which there is deficient expression of 6-phosphofructose 1-kinase in muscle (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE) resulting in abnormal deposition of glycogen in muscle tissue. These patients have severe congenital muscular dystrophy and are exercise intolerant.

Disease, Teschen
A picornavirus infection producing symptoms similar to poliomyelitis in pigs.

Disease, Thalamic
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.

Disease, Thoracic
Disorders affecting the organs of the thorax.

Disease, Tick-Borne
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.

Disease, Tsutsugamushi
Scrub typhus, a mite-borne infectious disease caused by a microorganism, Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, characteristically with fever, headache, a raised (macular) rash, swollen glands (lymphadenopathy) and a dark crusted ulcer (called an eschar or tache noire) at the site of the chigger (mite larva) bite.

Disease, UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase Deficiency
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)

Disease, Unverricht
An autosomal recessive condition characterized by recurrent myoclonic and generalized seizures, ATAXIA, slowly progressive intellectual deterioration, dysarthria, and intention tremor. Myoclonic seizures are severe and continuous, and tend to be triggered by movement, stress, and sensory stimuli. The age of onset is between 8 and 13 years, and the condition is relatively frequent in the Baltic region, especially Finland. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp109-110)

Disease, Urinary Tract
Diseases of the urinary tract in both male and female. It does not include the male genitalia for which UROGENITAL DISEASES is used for general discussions of diseases of both the urinary tract and the genitalia.

Disease, Urogenital
Diseases of the urogenital tract.

Disease, Urologic
Diseases of the urinary tract in both male and female. It does not include the male genitalia for which UROGENITAL DISEASES is used for general discussions of diseases of both the urinary tract and the genitalia.

Disease, Urological
Diseases of the urinary tract in both male and female. It does not include the male genitalia for which UROGENITAL DISEASES is used for general discussions of diseases of both the urinary tract and the genitalia.

Disease, Uveal
Diseases of the uvea.

Disease, Valvular Heart
Diseases caused by or resulting in abnormal functioning of heart valves.

Disease, Van Bogaert-Scherer-Epstein
A lipid storage disease, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, characterized by xanthomas of the tendons, the white matter of the brain, and the lungs, and by spasticity, ataxia, pyramidal paresis, mental retardation, dementia, early cataracts, and atherosclerosis. It is associated with elevated plasma and tissue levels of cholestanol and defective bile synthesis, with the deposition of cholestanol in the central nervous system and myelin of peripheral nerves. The lesions contain cholesterol and dehydrocholesterol. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
Abbreviated vCJD. A human disease thought due to the same infectious agent as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease. Both the human and bovine disorders are invariably fatal brain diseases with unusually long incubation periods measured in years, and are caused by an unconventional transmissible agent, a prion, resulting in the deposition of amyloid tissue that causes a breakdown of brain tissue leaving the infected brain with a "spongy" ("spongiform") appearance. The disease in humans is sometimes called new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD).

Disease, Vascular Skin
Skin diseases affecting or involving the cutaneous blood vessels and generally manifested as inflammation, swelling, erythema, or necrosis in the affected area.

Disease, Venereal
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.

Disease, Vestibular
Diseases of the vestibule, the part of the inner ear that contains organs involved with balance.

Disease, Viral
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.

Disease, Viral Skin
Skin diseases caused by viruses.

Disease, Viral Venereal
Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.

Disease, Virus
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.

Disease, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada
A syndrome characterized by bilateral granulomatous UVEITIS with IRITIS and secondary GLAUCOMA, premature ALOPECIA, symmetrical VITILIGO, poliosis circumscripta (a strand of depigmented hair), HEARING DISORDERS, and meningeal signs (neck stiffness and headache). Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid reveals a pattern consistent with MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p748; Surv Ophthalmol 1995 Jan;39(4):265-292)

Disease, Von Gierke
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Disease, von Willebrand
Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the von Willebrand factor (Factor VIII-related antigen) is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.

Disease, Vulvar
Diseases of the vulva.

Disease, Weber-Christian
A form of panniculitis characterized by recurrent episodes of fever accompanied by the eruption of single or multiple erythematous subcutaneous nodules on the lower extremities. They normally resolve, but tend to leave depressions in the skin. The condition is most often seen in women, alone or in association with other disorders.

Disease, Weil
A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS caused by Leptospira interrogans serogroup icterohaemorrhagica and transmitted to man by the rat.

Disease, Werdnig Hoffman
A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)

Disease, Werdnig-Hoffmann
A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)

Disease, Werlhof
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.

Disease, Whipple
A disease marked by diarrhea with fatty stools, arthritis, emaciation, and loss of strength, and attended with deposits of fat in the intestinal lymphatic tissue. Rod-shaped bacteria-like forms are present, presumed to be infectious, although no organism has been consistently isolated from patient specimens. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992).

Disease, White Heifer
A condition occurring in dizygotic twins of different sexes in cattle, when anastomoses of placental vessels permit interchange of hormones and cells during fetal life. The female calf is a sterile intersex due to passage of androgens from the male, and both calves are blood cell chimeras with immune tolerance, due to interchange of cells in utero.

Disease, White Muscle
A myodegeneration most frequent in calves and lambs whose dams have been fed during gestation or longer on feeds, especially legumes (FABACEAE), grown in certain areas where selenium is either deficient or unavailable in the soil. It has been recorded in many countries. It has been produced experimentally in several species of animals on low-selenium intake. A similar myopathy occurs naturally in goats, deer, foals, and dogs but proof of the etiology is lacking. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed)

Disease, Wilson
An inherited disorder in which too much copper accumulates in the body. Although the accumulation of copper begins at birth, symptoms of the disorder appear later in life, between the ages of 6 and 40. A diagnostic feature of Wilson disease is what is called a Kayser-Fleischer ring, a deep copper-colored ring around the edge of the cornea. It represents copper deposits in the eye.The main clinical consequence for about 40 percent of patients with Wilson disease is liver disease. In other patients the first symptoms are neurological or psychiatric or both, and include tremor, rigidity, drooling, difficulty with speech, abrupt personality change, grossly inappropriate behavior and inexplicable deterioration of school work, neurosis or psychosis.

Disease, Wolff Periodic
An autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by episodic fever, severe abdominal pain, pleurisy, arthritis, and a characteristic ankle rash. Disease flare-ups tend to last 3 days, and individuals are asymptomatic between attacks. Orchitis, a benign recurrent MENINGITIS, headaches, and amyloid nephropathy may also occur. (From Medicine (Baltimore) 1998 Jul;77(4):268-97)

Disease-free survival
The length of time after treatment during which no disease is found. Can be reported for an individual patient or for a study population.

Disease-Free Survival
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.

Disease-Free Survivals
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.

Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs
Drugs that are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Disease-Modifying Second-Line Drugs
Drugs that are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Diseases
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.

Diseases in Twin
Disorders affecting twins, one or both, at any age.

Diseases in Twins
Disorders affecting twins, one or both, at any age.

Diseases related to obesity
Obesity increases the risk of developing a large number of diseases including: Type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes; High blood pressure (hypertension); Stroke (cerebrovascular accident or CVA); Heart attack (myocardial infarction or MI); Heart failure (congestive heart failure); Cancer (certain forms such as cancer of the prostate and cancer of the colon and rectum); Gallstones and gall bladder disease (cholecystitis); Gout and gouty arthritis; Osteoarthritis (degenerative arthritis) of the knees, hips, and the lower back; Sleep apnea (failure to breath normally during sleep, lowering blood oxygen); Pickwickian syndrome (obesity, red face, underventilation, and drowsiness).

Diseases, Acute
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

Diseases, Adenohypophyseal
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Diseases, Adnexal
Diseases of the uterine appendages: the ovaries, uterine tubes, and ligaments of the uterus. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Diseases, Adult Pelizaeus-Merzbacher
A rare, slowly progressive disorder of myelin formation. Subtypes are referred to as classic, congenital, transitional, and adult forms of this disease. The classic form is X-chromosome linked, has its onset in infancy and is associated with a mutation of the proteolipid protein gene. Clinical manifestations include TREMOR, spasmus nutans, roving eye movements, ATAXIA, spasticity, and NYSTAGMUS. Death occurs by the third decade of life. The congenital form has similar characteristics but presents early in infancy and features rapid disease progression. Transitional and adult subtypes have a later onset and less severe symptomatology. Pathologic features include patchy areas of demyelination with preservation of perivascular islands (trigoid appearance). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p190)

Diseases, Agricultural Worker
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.

Diseases, alpha-Chain
A spectrum of conditions ranging from a benign plasma cell hyperplasia to a highly malignant lymphoma of the small intestine.

Diseases, alpha-Fucosidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Diseases, alpha-L-Fucosidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Diseases, Animal Parasitic
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.

Diseases, Anterior Pituitary
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Diseases, Anti-GBM
Glomerulonephritis, usually of a generalized proliferative crescent-forming histologic type with a rapidly progressive course, marked by circulating anti-GBM antibodies and linear deposits of immunoglobulin and complement along the glomerular basement membrane. When associated with pulmonary hemorrhage the condition is called GOODPASTURE SYNDROME. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Diseases, Ape
Diseases of apes (PONGIDAE). This term includes diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.

Diseases, Arterial Obstructive
Diseases in which arterial vessels are partially or completely obstructed or in which the blood flow through the vessels is impeded.

Diseases, Arterial Occlusive
Diseases in which arterial vessels are partially or completely obstructed or in which the blood flow through the vessels is impeded.

Diseases, Aspartoacylase Deficiency
A rare neurodegenerative condition of infancy or childhood characterized by white matter vacuolization and demeylination that gives rise to a spongy appearance. Aspartoacylase deficiency leads to an accumulation of N-acetylaspartate in astrocytes. Inheritance may be autosomal recessive or the illness may occur sporadically. This illness occurs more frequently in individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. The neonatal form features the onset of hypotonia and lethargy at birth, rapidly progressing to coma and death. The infantile form features developmental delay, DYSKINESIAS, hypotonia, spasticity, blindness, and megalencephaly. The juvenile form is characterized by ATAXIA; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEMENTIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p944; Am J Med Genet 1988 Feb;29(2):463-71)

Diseases, Atypical Inclusion-Body
A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.

Diseases, Atypical Pelizaeus-Merzbacher
A rare, slowly progressive disorder of myelin formation. Subtypes are referred to as classic, congenital, transitional, and adult forms of this disease. The classic form is X-chromosome linked, has its onset in infancy and is associated with a mutation of the proteolipid protein gene. Clinical manifestations include TREMOR, spasmus nutans, roving eye movements, ATAXIA, spasticity, and NYSTAGMUS. Death occurs by the third decade of life. The congenital form has similar characteristics but presents early in infancy and features rapid disease progression. Transitional and adult subtypes have a later onset and less severe symptomatology. Pathologic features include patchy areas of demyelination with preservation of perivascular islands (trigoid appearance). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p190)

Diseases, Autoimmune
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.

Diseases, Avian
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.

Diseases, Azorean (Machado-Joseph)
A dominantly-inherited ataxia first described in people of Azorean and Portuguese descent, and subsequently identified in Brazil, Japan, China, and Australia. This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 gene on chromosome 14. Clinical features include progressive ataxia, dysarthria, postural instability, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, and facial fasciculations. Dystonia is prominent in younger patients (referred to as Type I Machado-Joseph Disease). Type II features ataxia and ocular signs; Type III features muscle atrophy and a sensorimotor neuropathy; and Type IV features extrapyramidal signs combined with a sensorimotor neuropathy. (From Clin Neurosci 1995;3(1):17-22; Ann Neurol 1998 Mar;43(3):288-96)

Diseases, Bacterial Skin
Skin diseases caused by bacteria.

Diseases, Bacterial Venereal
Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.

Diseases, Bassen-Kornzweig
A disorder of lipid metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait characterized by the near absence of APOLIPOPROTEINS B and apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is deficient or absent in enterocytes. Clinical and laboratory findings include acanthocytosis, hypocholesterolemia, peripheral neuropathy, posterior column degeneration, ataxia, and steatorrhea. Intellectual abilities may also be impaired. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118; Curr Opin Lipidol 1994 Apr;5(2):81-6)

Diseases, Betalipoprotein Deficiency
A disorder of lipid metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait characterized by the near absence of APOLIPOPROTEINS B and apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is deficient or absent in enterocytes. Clinical and laboratory findings include acanthocytosis, hypocholesterolemia, peripheral neuropathy, posterior column degeneration, ataxia, and steatorrhea. Intellectual abilities may also be impaired. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118; Curr Opin Lipidol 1994 Apr;5(2):81-6)

Diseases, Bird
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.

Diseases, Blood
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.

Diseases, Bovine
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.

Diseases, Broad Beta
A rather uncommon form of familial hyperlipemia characterized by the presence of lipoproteins of abnormal composition. The main abnormal lipoproteins are called beta-VLDL and have a different apoprotein content and a higher proportion of cholesterol relative to triglyceride than normal VLDL.

Diseases, Caisson
A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.

Diseases, Canine
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.

Diseases, Caprine
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.

Diseases, Carcinoid Heart
Cardiac manifestation of MALIGNANT CARCINOID SYNDROME. It is a unique form of fibrosis involving the endocardium, primarily of the right heart. The fibrous deposits tend to cause constriction of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1307)

Diseases, Cardiovascular (Specialty)
The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.

Diseases, Cat
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.

Diseases, Cattle
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.

Diseases, Cerebral Arterial
Diseases of intracranial arteries which supply the cerebrum of the brain, including the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY. Included in this category are atherosclerotic, congenital, traumatic, infectious, inflammatory, and other conditions.

Diseases, Cerebral Artery
Diseases of intracranial arteries which supply the cerebrum of the brain, including the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY. Included in this category are atherosclerotic, congenital, traumatic, infectious, inflammatory, and other conditions.

Diseases, Choroid
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.

Diseases, Choroidal
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.

Diseases, Chronic
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

Diseases, Chronic Granulomatous
A recessive X-linked defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation.

Diseases, Cochlear
Diseases of the cochlea, the part of the inner ear that is concerned with hearing.

Diseases, Collagen
Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that ""collagen"" was equivalent to ""connective tissue"", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term ""collagen diseases"" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)

Diseases, Connective Tissue
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.

Diseases, Corneal
Diseases of the cornea.

Diseases, Coronary
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the coronary vessels to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.

Diseases, Coronary Artery
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the coronary arteries, leading to progressive insufficiency of the arteries (CORONARY DISEASE).

Diseases, Coronary Heart
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the coronary vessels to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.

Diseases, Craniomandibular
Diseases or disorders of the muscles of the head and neck, with special reference to the masticatory muscles. The most notable examples are TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS and TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.

Diseases, Cytomegalic Inclusion
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.

Diseases, Deficiency
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Diseases, Dog
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.

Diseases, Ear
Diseases of the ear, general or unspecified.

Diseases, Eczematous Skin
Any of a variety of eruptive skin disorders characterized by erythema, oozing, vesiculation, and scaling. Etiology is varied.

Diseases, Emerging Communicable
Reporting of new and reemerging infectious diseases and studies that seek to improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination.

Diseases, Emerging Infectious
Reporting of new and reemerging infectious diseases and studies that seek to improve the understanding of factors involved in disease emergence, prevention, and elimination.

Diseases, Endemic
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)

Diseases, Endocrine Bone
Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.

Diseases, Equine
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.

Diseases, Experimental Parkinson
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.

Diseases, Facial Nerve
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

Diseases, Feline
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.

Diseases, Fish
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).

Diseases, Folling
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).

Diseases, Foot
Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.

Diseases, Fucosidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Diseases, Fumarylacetoacetase Deficiency
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Diseases, Galactosylceramidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive inherited sphingolipidosis caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to an accumulation of PSYCHOSINE in LYSOSOMES of the BRAIN; PERIPHERAL NERVES; LIVER; KIDNEY; and LEUKOCYTES. In the nervous sytem there is prominent central and peripheral demyelination. The infantile form presents at age 4-6 months with psychomotor retardation, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, and tonic spasms induced by minor stimuli. Death occurs within two years. Later onset forms of this disease are characterized by a less fulminant course. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp195-7)

Diseases, Galactosylceramide-beta-Galactosidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive inherited sphingolipidosis caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to an accumulation of PSYCHOSINE in LYSOSOMES of the BRAIN; PERIPHERAL NERVES; LIVER; KIDNEY; and LEUKOCYTES. In the nervous sytem there is prominent central and peripheral demyelination. The infantile form presents at age 4-6 months with psychomotor retardation, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, and tonic spasms induced by minor stimuli. Death occurs within two years. Later onset forms of this disease are characterized by a less fulminant course. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp195-7)

Diseases, Genetic Skin
Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.

Diseases, Genitourinary
Diseases of the urogenital tract.

Diseases, Glucocerebrosidase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Diseases, Glycogen Storage
A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.

Diseases, Goat
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.

Diseases, Graft-Versus-Host
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.

Diseases, Graft-vs-Host
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.

Diseases, Hammond
A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY, NERVOUS SYSTEM. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76)

Diseases, Heart Valve
Diseases caused by or resulting in abnormal functioning of heart valves.

Diseases, Heartwater
A tick-borne septicemic disease of ruminants caused by Cowdria ruminantium.

Diseases, Hematologic
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.

Diseases, Hematological
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.

Diseases, Hemoglobin C
A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.

Diseases, Hemoglobin H
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.

Diseases, Hemoglobin S
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.

Diseases, Hemoglobin SC
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.

Diseases, Hepatic Veno-Occlusive
Blockage of the small- or medium-sized hepatic veins due to nonthrombotic subendothelial edema which may progress to fibrosis.

Diseases, Hepato-Neurologic Wilson
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. Clinical features include LIVER CIRRHOSIS; LIVER FAILURE; SPLENOMEGALY; TREMOR; bradykinesia; DYSARTHRIA; CHOREA; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; Kayser-Fleischer rings (pigmented corneal lesions); ATAXIA; and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)

Diseases, Hereditary Eye
Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.

Diseases, Hereditary Neurodegenerative
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Diseases, Hodgkins
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue, and the presence of large, usually multinucleate, cells (REED-STERNBERG CELLS) of unknown origin.

Diseases, Horse
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.

Diseases, Hyaline Membrane
A disorder affecting newborn infants (usually premature) characterized pathologically by the development of a hyaline-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory passages. Extensive atelectasis is attributed to the lack of surfactant. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Diseases, Hypothalamic
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Diseases, Hypoxanthine-Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Deficiency
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)

Diseases, I-Cell
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. Mental retardation and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)

Diseases, Iatrogenic
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by the patient during the course of treatment.

Diseases, Ileal
Diseases of the ileum including the ileocecal valve.

Diseases, Immune Complex
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other systemic immunologic diseases including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.

Diseases, Immunologic
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated or both.

Diseases, Immunological
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated or both.

Diseases, Inclusion Cell
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. Mental retardation and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)

Diseases, Infectious Bone
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

Diseases, Infectious Skin
Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.

Diseases, Inflammatory Bowel
Chronic, non-specific disorders of unknown etiology. Includes Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Extracolonic manifestations are often associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and involve the liver, joints and skin.

Diseases, Inflammatory Pelvic
Inflammation of the adnexa uteri. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Diseases, inherited metabolic
Also called inborn errors of metabolism, these are heritable (genetic) disorders of biochemistry. Examples include albinism, cystinuria (a cause of kidney stones), phenylketonuria (PKU), and some forms of gout, sun sensitivity, and thyroid disease. These are only a very few of the hundreds of known inborn errors of metabolism. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of inborn errors of metabolism have improved the outlook for many of these conditions so that early diagnosis, if possible in infancy, can be helpful. Many of the inborn errors of metabolism in young infants cause symptoms such as sluggishness (lethargy), poor feeding, apnea (stopping breathing) or tachypnea (fast breathing), and recurrent vomiting. Any infants, particularly full-term infants, with these findings should be seen and checked immediately by a doctor.

Diseases, Interstitial Lung
A heterogeneous group of noninfectious, nonmalignant disorders of the lower respiratory tract, affecting primarily the alveolar wall structures but also often involving the small airways and blood vessels of the lung parenchyma. ""Interstitial"" refers to the fact that the interstitium of the alveolar walls is thickened, usually by fibrosis. This group of diseases is usually inflammatory. (Dorland, 27th ed; Wyngarden, Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p396)

Diseases, Iris
Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.

Diseases, Ischemic Heart
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERIOSCLEROSIS), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).

Diseases, Kinky Hair
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)

Diseases, Kinnier-Wilson
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. Clinical features include LIVER CIRRHOSIS; LIVER FAILURE; SPLENOMEGALY; TREMOR; bradykinesia; DYSARTHRIA; CHOREA; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; Kayser-Fleischer rings (pigmented corneal lesions); ATAXIA; and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)

Diseases, Lacrimal Apparatus
Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.

Diseases, Laryngeal
Disorders of the larynx, general or unspecified.

Diseases, Larynx
Disorders of the larynx, general or unspecified.

Diseases, Lumpy Skin
A poxvirus infection of cattle characterized by the appearance of nodules on all parts of the skin.

Diseases, Lymphatic
Diseases of lymph or lymph vessels.

Diseases, Lysosomal Storage
Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.

Diseases, Mast-Cell
A group of diseases resulting from proliferation of mast cells.

Diseases, Mediastinal
Disorders of the mediastinum, general or unspecified.

Diseases, Metabolic
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Diseases, Metabolic Skin
Diseases of the skin associated with underlying metabolic disorders.

Diseases, Minimal Residual
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)

Diseases, Monkey
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).

Diseases, Musculoskeletal
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.

Diseases, Myocardial
Diseases of the myocardium.

Diseases, Nail
Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.

Diseases, Nasopharyngeal
General or unspecified diseases of the nasopharynx.

Diseases, Nervous System
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

Diseases, Neurodegenerative Hereditary
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Diseases, Neurohypophyseal
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Diseases, Neurologic Autoimmune
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).

Diseases, Nose
Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.

Diseases, Obstructive Lung
Any disorder marked by persistent obstruction of bronchial air flow.

Diseases, Orbital
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.

Diseases, Otorhinolaryngologic
General or unspecified diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.

Diseases, Otorhinolaryngological
General or unspecified diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.

Diseases, Ovine
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.

Diseases, Papulosquamous Skin
A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.

Diseases, Paranasal Sinus
Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.

Diseases, Parasitic
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.

Diseases, Parasitic Intestinal
Infections of the intestines with a parasite. They are caused most commonly by intestinal nematodes (roundworms) and cestodes (tapeworms). (From Merck Manual, 15th ed; Dorland, 27th ed)

Diseases, Parasitic Liver
Infections of the liver with a parasite. They are caused most commonly by trematodes (flukes).

Diseases, Parasitic Lung
Infections of the lungs with a parasite. They are caused most commonly by nematodes (roundworms).

Diseases, Parasitic Skin
Skin diseases caused by arthropods, helminths, or protozoa.

Diseases, Pelvic Inflammatory
Inflammation of the adnexa uteri. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Diseases, Periapical
Diseases of the periapical tissue.

Diseases, Peripheral Vascular
General or unspecified diseases of the blood vessels outside the heart. It is for diseases of the peripheral as opposed to the cardiac circulation.

Diseases, Peritoneal
Conditions or disorders affecting the PERITONEUM.

Diseases, Pharyngeal
General or unspecified diseases of the pharynx.

Diseases, Pharynx
General or unspecified diseases of the pharynx.

Diseases, Pituitary
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Diseases, Pituitary Gland
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Diseases, Plant
Diseases of plants.

Diseases, Polycystic Kidney
Diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed cysts within the kidney.

Diseases, Pongidae
Diseases of apes (PONGIDAE). This term includes diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.

Diseases, Posterior Pituitary
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Diseases, Postphlebitic
Post-thrombotic complications, including destruction of the valves of the deep veins and communication veins of the leg, and obliteration of the thrombosed veins rather than recanalization, resulting in chronic venous insufficiency, marked by edema, stasis dermatitis, and ulceration of the leg.

Diseases, Poultry
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.

Diseases, Primary Myocardial
Diseases of the myocardium.

Diseases, Primate
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.

Diseases, Psuedo-Hurler
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. Mental retardation and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)

Diseases, Pulmonary (Specialty)
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the respiratory system. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.

Diseases, Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive
Obstruction of the small- and medium-sized pulmonary veins by fibrous proliferation of the intima and media or by thrombosis or a combination of both.

Diseases, Residual Minimal
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)

Diseases, Retrocochlear
Diseases of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE. Retrocochlear refers to the eighth cranial nerve and cerebellopontine angle as opposed to the cochlea. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Diseases, Rheumatic
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.

Diseases, Rheumatic Heart
The most important manifestation of and sequel to rheumatic fever, i.e., any cardiac involvement in rheumatic fever. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Diseases, rickettsial
The infectious diseases caused by the rickettsiae fall into 4 groups:(1) typhus: epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, murine (endemic) typhus, and scrub typhus; (2) spotted fever-Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Eastern tick-borne rickettsioses, and rickettsialpox; (3) Q fever; and (4) trench fever

Diseases, Rodent
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).

Diseases, SC
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.

Diseases, Sclera
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.

Diseases, Scleral
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.

Diseases, Sebaceous Gland
Diseases of the sebaceous glands such as sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous cell carcinoma (SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS).

Diseases, Secondary Myocardial
Diseases of the myocardium.

Diseases, Sexually Transmitted
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.

Diseases, Sheep
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.

Diseases, Slow Virus
Diseases of viral origin, characterized by incubation periods of months to years, insidious onset of clinical manifestations, and protracted clinical course. Though the disease process is protracted, viral multiplication may not be unusually slow. Conventional viruses produce slow virus diseases such as SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL), and AIDS. Diseases produced by unconventional agents were originally considered part of this group. They are now called PRION DISEASES.

Diseases, Sphingomyelinase Deficiency
A group of diseases marked by autosomal recessive inheritance and accumulation of sphingomyelin in cells of the RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM. They are divided into 5 subtypes: A-E. Type A (classic infantile form) is caused by a deficiency of SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE and presents at age 6-12 months with progressive hepatosplenomegaly and neurologic deterioration. Type B (non-neuronopathic form) presents in childhood with hepatosplenomegaly and pulmonary infiltrates. Type C (chronic neuronopathic form) is caused by defective intracellular cholesterol transport and is divided into severe infantile, late infantile, juvenile, and neonatal hepatitis forms. Type D (Nova Scotian Variant) is phenotypically similar to type C. Type E is an adult non-neuronopathic form. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp101-4)

Diseases, Staphylococcal Skin
Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.

Diseases, Steely Hair
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)

Diseases, Stomatognathic
General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.

Diseases, Sweat Gland
Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS.

Diseases, Swine
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.

Diseases, Thalamic
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.

Diseases, Thoracic
Disorders affecting the organs of the thorax.

Diseases, Tick-Borne
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.

Diseases, Tsutsugamushi
An acute infectious disease caused by ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI. It is limited to eastern and southeastern Asia, India, northern Australia, and the adjacent islands. Characteristics include the formation of a primary cutaneous lesion at the site of the bite of an infected mite, fever lasting about two weeks, and a maculopapular rash.

Diseases, UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase Deficiency
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)

Diseases, Unverricht
An autosomal recessive condition characterized by recurrent myoclonic and generalized seizures, ATAXIA, slowly progressive intellectual deterioration, dysarthria, and intention tremor. Myoclonic seizures are severe and continuous, and tend to be triggered by movement, stress, and sensory stimuli. The age of onset is between 8 and 13 years, and the condition is relatively frequent in the Baltic region, especially Finland. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp109-110)

Diseases, Urinary Tract
Diseases of the urinary tract in both male and female. It does not include the male genitalia for which UROGENITAL DISEASES is used for general discussions of diseases of both the urinary tract and the genitalia.

Diseases, Urogenital
Diseases of the urogenital tract.

Diseases, Urologic
Diseases of the urinary tract in both male and female. It does not include the male genitalia for which UROGENITAL DISEASES is used for general discussions of diseases of both the urinary tract and the genitalia.

Diseases, Urological
Diseases of the urinary tract in both male and female. It does not include the male genitalia for which UROGENITAL DISEASES is used for general discussions of diseases of both the urinary tract and the genitalia.

Diseases, Uveal
Diseases of the uvea.

Diseases, Valvular Heart
Diseases caused by or resulting in abnormal functioning of heart valves.

Diseases, Vascular Skin
Skin diseases affecting or involving the cutaneous blood vessels and generally manifested as inflammation, swelling, erythema, or necrosis in the affected area.

Diseases, Venereal
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.

Diseases, Vestibular
Diseases of the vestibule, the part of the inner ear that contains organs involved with balance.

Diseases, Viral
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.

Diseases, Viral Skin
Skin diseases caused by viruses.

Diseases, Viral Venereal
Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.

Diseases, Virus
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.

Diseases, Vulvar
Diseases of the vulva.

Diseases, Werdnig Hoffman
A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)

Diseases, White Muscle
A myodegeneration most frequent in calves and lambs whose dams have been fed during gestation or longer on feeds, especially legumes (FABACEAE), grown in certain areas where selenium is either deficient or unavailable in the soil. It has been recorded in many countries. It has been produced experimentally in several species of animals on low-selenium intake. A similar myopathy occurs naturally in goats, deer, foals, and dogs but proof of the etiology is lacking. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed)

Diseases, Zellweger
An autosomal recessive peroxisomal disorder that typically presents in the neonatal period and is usually fatal. Clinical features include hypotonia, dysmorphic skull and facial bones, visual compromise, multifocal seizures, hepatomegaly, biliary dysgenesis, and swallowing difficulties. Pathologically, there are migration deficits of the neocortex and degeneration of white matter tracts. Zellweger-like syndrome refers to conditions that phenotypically resemble neonatal Zellweger syndrome, but occur in childhood or adulthood (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p946)

Diselenious acid, di Na salt of Sodium Selenite
Selenious acid, disodium salt. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium.

Diselenious acid, di-Na salt of Sodium Selenite
Selenious acid, disodium salt. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium.

Disequilibrium, Linkage
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.

Disequilibriums, Linkage
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.



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Disc, slipped
Rupturing of the tissue that separates the vertebral bones of the spinal column.

Discharge
1.The flow of fluid from part of the body, such as from the nose or vagina. 2. The passing of an action potential, such as through a nerve or muscle fiber. 3. The release of a patient from a course of care. The doctor may then dictate a discharge summary.

Discordance
1. The presence of any given condition such as HIV in only one member of a couple. 2. In genetics, the presence of a phenotype such as asthma in only one members of a twin pair. 3. In clinical care, lack of agreement between physician and patient.In all sense, disconcordance is as opposed to concordance.

Discordant
1. Showing discordance, lack of agreement. A couple may be discordant for a sexually transmitted infection, with one partner having it and the other not. 2. In transplantation genetics, between different species. A discordant xenograft is a transplant between members of very different species

Discordant couple
A pair of long-term sexual partners in which one has a sexually transmitted infection and the other does not. The CDC has guidelines for counseling discordant couples in which the woman is HIV-infected and her husband is HIV-uninfected.

Disease

Disease nomenclature
A system of classifying and naming diseases.

Disease surveillance
The ongoing systematic collection and analysis of data and the provision of information which leads to action being taken to prevent and control a disease, usually one of an infectious nature.

Disease, acute respiratory
A sudden condition in which breathing is difficult and the oxygen levels in the blood abruptly drop lower than normal.

Disease, Addison
Long-term underfunction of the outer portion of the adrenal gland.

Disease, adult celiac
This condition results from an immune (allergic) reaction to gluten, a protein found in wheat and related grains and present in many foods that we eat. Sprue causes impaired absorption and digestion of nutrients through the small intestine. Symptoms include frequent diarrhea and weight loss. A skin condition called dermatitis herpetiformis can be associated with celiac sprue. The most accurate diagnostic test for sprue is a biopsy of the involved small bowel. Treatment is to avoid gluten in the diet. Medications are used for refractory (stubborn) sprue. Known under a number of other names, including celiac sprue.

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   isease / dsease / diease / disase / disese / diseae / diseas / ddisease / diisease / dissease / diseease / diseaase / diseasse / diseasee / eisease / risease / fisease / visease / cisease / xisease / sisease / wisease / dsease / diwease / dieease / didease / dixease / dizease / diaease / diqease / dis3ase / dis4ase / disrase / disfase / disdase / dissase / diswase / diseqse / disewse / disesse / disexse / disezse / diseawe / diseaee / diseade / diseaxe / diseaze / diseaae / diseaqe / diseas3 / diseas4 / diseasr / diseasf / diseasd / diseass / diseasw /