Dioxins
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  Dioxins



Dioxins

   Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.

RELATED TERMS
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Herbicides
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants.

Dioxins
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.

Carcinogenic
Of a substance which causes cancer.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Dioxanedione Polymer with Dimethyldioxanedione Polymer
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.

Dioxanes
1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may ""reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen."" (Merck Index, 11th ed)

Dioxide Snow, Carbon
A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.

Dioxide, Carbon
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.

Dioxide, Silicon
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.

Dioxide, Sulfur
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.

Dioxide, Thorium
Thorium oxide (ThO2). A radiographic contrast agent that was used in the early 1930s through about 1954. High rates of mortality have been linked to its use and it has been shown to cause liver cancer.

Dioxin
One of a number of poisonous petroleum-derived chemicals which are produced when herbicides (substances used for killing plants) are made or when plastics are burned. Dioxins are chemically dibenzo-p-dioxins. One of the best known is TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD).

Dioxin Receptor
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.

Dioxin Receptors
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.

Dioxopregnanes
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.

Dioxopregnenes
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.

Dioxygen
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight 16. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.

Dioxygen, Singlet
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS, PROTEINS, and LIPIDS causing oxidative damages.

Dioxygenase, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate plus oxygen to homogentisic acid and carbon dioxide. EC 1.13.11.27.

Dioxygenase, Lysine 2-Oxoglutarate
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC 1.14.11.4.

Dioxygenase, Procollagen-Proline
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl-containing-peptide, usually in protocollagen, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC 1.14.11.2.

Dioxyphenylisatin
A laxative that undergoes enterohepatic circulation. It may cause jaundice.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Dioxygenase, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate plus oxygen to homogentisic acid and carbon dioxide. EC 1.13.11.27.

Dioxygen, Singlet
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS, PROTEINS, and LIPIDS causing oxidative damages.

Dioxygen
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight 16. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.

Dioxopregnanes
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.

Dioxopregnenes
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.

Dioxins

Dioxin Receptors
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.

Dioxin Receptor
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.

Diperchlorate, beta-Aminoethylisothiuronium
A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.

Diperchlorate, Hexamethonium
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.

Diperchlorate, 2-Aminoethylisothiuronium
A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.

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