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   A chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide.


Trade name of the insecticide dieldrin.


Diastrophic dysplasia
An inherited skeletal disorder involving significantly short stature (dwarfism). Characteristic features at birth include short birth length with short limbs (short-limbed dwarfism), "hitchhiker thumb", and clubfeet. Palatal malformations such as cleft palate or submucous cleft of the palate are present in 50% of patients. There is swelling of the ears in the first days to weeks of life in 80% of children; the swelling then spontaneously subsides but later the ears have a "cauliflower" appearance. Fingers are short and broad and show ulnar deviation (are inclined away from the thumb). The thumb itself has a hitch-hiker-type appearance.

The use of heat to destroy abnormal cells. Also called cauterization or electrodiathermy.

A riot control agent or "tear gas."

Dicentric chromosome
An abnormal chromosome with two centromeres rather than the normal one. Every normal chromosome has one centromere that tethers it to the pole of the spindle and is essential to the chromosome at the time of cell division. However, a dicentric chromosome is doubly tethered (by its two centomeres) and is pulled to the opposite poles of the spindle when the cell divides, causing the chromosome to break.

An acronym that stands for Diabetes Insipidus (inability to concentrate the urine), Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy (degeneration of the nerve to the eye), and Deafness. These features are characteristic of this genetic disease which is also called the Wolfram syndrome. Patients usually also suffer from severe abnormalities of the nervous system that can be accompanied by behavior problems, psychiatric hospitalizations and, in about a quarter of cases, suicide attempts.


Trade name of the insecticide dieldrin.

Diesel exhaust
The exhaust generated by diesel engines. This exhaust is a complex mixture of combustion products of diesel fuel. The exact composition depends on the type of engine, the speed and load at which it is run, and the composition of the fuel used.

Diesel exhaust particle
A respirable particle produced during the compression ignition of diesel fuel. Diesel particles are composed of elemental and organic carbon compounds as well as trace amount of other elements with toxic properties including transition metals.

Differential white cell count
The proportions of the different types of white cells in the blood, usually split into the different types of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. The differential white cell count was originally done by visual inspection of the blood and is now often machine-generated. Normal values are: 24-62% neutrophils, 19-53% lymphocytes, 2-12% monocytes, 0-7% eosinophils, and 0-2% basophils.

Differentiated cancer
A cancer in which the cells are mature and look like cells in the tissue from it arose. Differentiated cancers tend to be decidedly less aggressive than undifferentiated cancers composed of immature cells.

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