Diabetes
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  Diabetes



Diabetes

    A condition in which blood glucose is not well controlled. Type I diabetics make no insulin, whereas type 2 diabetics are characterized by the overproduction of insulin, but the inability of the target cells to respond to the insulin.

RELATED TERMS
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Condition
The term "condition" has a number of biomedical meanings including the following: 1.An unhealthy state, such as in "this is a progressive condition." 2.A state of fitness, such as "getting into condition." 3.Something that is essential to the occurrence of something else; essentially a "precondition." 4.As a verb: to cause a change in something so that a response that was previously associated with a certain stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus; to condition a person, as in behavioral conditioning.

Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Glucose
The only simple carbohydrate that circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain. It can also be stored in the liver and muscles in a polymer form known as glycogen.

Insulin
The hormone that drives incoming nutrients into cells for storage. Excess insulin is the primary pillar of aging.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Diabesity
Diabetes caused by overweight or obesity

Diabet Hastanesi
The Diabet Hastanesi is a hospital in Sisli, Istanbul, Turkey.

Diabeta
Diabeta is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): glyburide.

Diabetal
A sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent with similar actions and uses to CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p277)

Diabete, Pregnancy in
Previously diagnosed diabetics that become pregnant. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance induced by pregnancy but resolved at the end of pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL).

Diabete, Streptozocin
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by pancreatectomy.

Diabetes and fiber
Soluble fibers (oat bran, apples, citrus, pears, peas/beans, psyllium, etc.) slow down the digestion of carbohydrates (sugars), which results in better glucose metabolism. Some patients with the adult-onset diabetes may actually be successfully treated with a high-fiber diet alone, and those on insulin, can often reduce their insulin requirements by adhering to a high-fiber diet.

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)
A 10-year study (1983-1993) funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to assess the effects of intensive therapy on the long-term complications of diabetes. The study proved that intensive management of insulin-dependent diabetes prevents or slows the development of eye, kidney, and nerve damage caused by diabetes.

Diabetes Insipidus
A disease of the pituitary gland or kidney, not diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is often called "water diabetes" to set it apart from "sugar diabetes." The cause and treatment are not the same as for diabetes mellitus. "Water diabetes" has diabetes in its name because most people who have it show most of the same signs as someone with diabetes mellitus-they have to urinate often, get very thirsty and hungry, and feel weak. However, they do not have glucose (sugar) in their urine. See also Wolfram Syndrome and Services: Diabetes insipidus.

Diabetes Insipidus, Central
Deficiency of vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland. Clinical manifestations include extreme thirst, polydipsia, and reduced serum osmolality. Potential etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; post-neurosurgical states; HYPOTHALAMIC NEOPLASMS; PITUITARY NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; PITUITARY APOPLEXY; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; granulomatous diseases (including SARCOIDOSIS); and other conditions. The disorder may also be inherited as an autosomal or recessive trait. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch 36, pp55-8)

Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic
A polyuric disorder characterized by normal rates of renal filtration and solute excretion, but a persistent hypotonic urine. This condition is due to the failure of renal tubules to respond to antidiuretic hormones, such as vasopressin, to reduce urine volume. Tubular insensitivity to vasopressin can result from genetic defects, diseases, drug effects, or may occur with pregnancy.

Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic
Deficiency of vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland. Clinical manifestations include extreme thirst, polydipsia, and reduced serum osmolality. Potential etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; post-neurosurgical states; HYPOTHALAMIC NEOPLASMS; PITUITARY NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; PITUITARY APOPLEXY; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; granulomatous diseases (including SARCOIDOSIS); and other conditions. The disorder may also be inherited as an autosomal or recessive trait. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch 36, pp55-8)

Diabetes Insipidus, Neurohypophyseal
Deficiency of vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland. Clinical manifestations include extreme thirst, polydipsia, and reduced serum osmolality. Potential etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; post-neurosurgical states; HYPOTHALAMIC NEOPLASMS; PITUITARY NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; PITUITARY APOPLEXY; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; granulomatous diseases (including SARCOIDOSIS); and other conditions. The disorder may also be inherited as an autosomal or recessive trait. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch 36, pp55-8)

Diabetes Insipidus, Pituitary
Deficiency of vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland. Clinical manifestations include extreme thirst, polydipsia, and reduced serum osmolality. Potential etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; post-neurosurgical states; HYPOTHALAMIC NEOPLASMS; PITUITARY NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; PITUITARY APOPLEXY; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; granulomatous diseases (including SARCOIDOSIS); and other conditions. The disorder may also be inherited as an autosomal or recessive trait. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch 36, pp55-8)

Diabetes Mellitus
A metabolic disease caused by an absolute or a relative deficiency of insulin, a hormone that controls how the body processes glucose, protein, and fats. When the body's insulin supply is decreased, it cannot process carbohydrates and it compensates by overprocessing fats and protein. The condition is characterized by chronic high blood sugar and sugar in the urine. Diabetes mellitus can result in coma. Over time, complications can include nerve injury, blindness, kidney failure, and premature atherosclerosis with all of its complications.

Diabetes Mellitus, Adult Onset
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Adult-Onset
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Brittle
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by pancreatectomy.

Diabetes Mellitus, Gestational
Either symptomatic diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance induced by pregnancy but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS).

Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Dependent
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Juvenile Onset
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Juvenile-Onset
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis Prone
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis Resistant
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Resistant
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Lipoatrophic
A disorder characterized by complete absence of subcutaneous adipose tissue, insulin-resistant diabetes with little tendency to ketoacidosis, hyperlipidemia with subcutaneous xanthomatosis, hepatomegaly, and an elevated basal metabolic rate.

Diabetes Mellitus, Maturity Onset
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Maturity-Onset
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Non Insulin Dependent
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Non-Insulin-Dependent
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin Dependent
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Slow Onset
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Slow-Onset
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Stable
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Sudden Onset
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Sudden-Onset
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type I
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type II
Diabetes characterized by the ability to survive without ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is usually of slow onset and patients exhibit a tendency to obesity.

Diabetes, Alloxan
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by pancreatectomy.

Diabetes, Autoimmune
Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.

Diabetes, Bronze
A disorder due to the deposition of hemosiderin in the parenchymal cells, causing tissue damage and dysfunction of the liver, pancreas, heart, and pituitary. Full development of the disease in women is restricted by menstruation, pregnancy, and lower dietary intake of iron. Acquired hemochromatosis may be the result of blood transfusions, excessive dietary iron, or secondary to other disease. Idiopathic or genetic hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder of metabolism associated with a gene tightly linked to the A locus of the HLA complex on chromosome 6. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Diabetes, gestational
A form of diabetes mellitus that appears during pregnancy (gestation) in a woman who previously did not have diabetes and usually goes away after the baby is born.

Diabetes, Gestational
Either symptomatic diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance induced by pregnancy but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS).

Diabetes, insulin-dependent
Also called type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes, insulin-resistant
An autoimmune form of diabetes, in which the body develops an immune response to its own insulin hormone. This form of diabetes is probably the most difficult type to treat, but it can be done. Treatment includes very careful diet, medication, and in experimental cases, immunology treatment.

Diabetes, non-insulin-dependent
Type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes, Phosphate
Familial disorder characterized by hypophosphatemia associated with decreased renal tubular reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus. It is sometimes associated with osteomalacia or rickets which do not respond to the usual doses of vitamin D.

Diabetes, Pregnancy in
Previously diagnosed diabetics that become pregnant. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance induced by pregnancy but resolved at the end of pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL).

Diabetes, Pregnancy Induced
Either symptomatic diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance induced by pregnancy but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS).

Diabetes, Pregnancy-Induced
Either symptomatic diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance induced by pregnancy but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS).

Diabetes, Renal
Glycosuria occurring when there is only the normal amount of sugar in the blood, due to inherited inability of the renal tubules to reabsorb glucose completely. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Diabetes, Streptozocin
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by pancreatectomy.

Diabetes, Streptozotocin
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by pancreatectomy.

Diabetes, type 1
An autoimmune disease that occurs when T cells attack and decimate the beta cells in the pancreas that are needed to produce insulin, so that the pancreas makes too little insulin (or no insulin). Without the capacity to make adequate amounts of insulin, the body is not able to metabolize blood glucose (sugar), to use it efficiently for energy, and toxic acids (called ketoacids) build up in the body. There is a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes, type 2
One of the two major types of diabetes, the type in which the beta cells of the pancreas produce insulin but the body is unable to use it effectively because the cells of the body are resistant to the action of insulin. Although this type of diabetes may not carry the same risk of death from ketoacidosis, it otherwise involves many of the same risks of complications as does type 1 diabetes (in which there is a lack of insulin).

Diabetic
Pertaining to Diabetes. Patient suffering from this condition.

Diabetic Acidoses
Complication of diabetes resulting from severe insulin deficiency coupled with an absolute or relative increase in glucagon concentration. The metabolic acidosis is caused by the breakdown of adipose stores and resulting increased levels of free fatty acids. Glucagon accelerates the oxidation of the free fatty acids producing excess ketone bodies (ketosis).

Diabetic Acidosis
Complication of diabetes resulting from severe insulin deficiency coupled with an absolute or relative increase in glucagon concentration. The metabolic acidosis is caused by the breakdown of adipose stores and resulting increased levels of free fatty acids. Glucagon accelerates the oxidation of the free fatty acids producing excess ketone bodies (ketosis).

Diabetic air travel
A concern for patients with diabetes is flying with medications and supplies. Letters from doctors are not recommended since security has concerns that these may be easily forged.

Diabetic Amyotrophies
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Amyotrophy
A disease of the nerves leading to the muscles. This condition affects only one side of the body and occurs most often in older men with mild diabetes.

Diabetic Angiopathies
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.

Diabetic Angiopathy
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.

Diabetic Asymmetric Polyneuropathies
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Asymmetric Polyneuropathy
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathies
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Coma
A severe emergency in which a person is not conscious because the blood glucose (sugar) is too low or too high. If the glucose level is too low, the person has hypoglycemia; if the level is too high, the person has hyperglycemia and may develop ketoacidosis.

Diabetic coma
Coma in a diabetic due to the buildup of ketones in the bloodstream. Ketones are a product of metabolizing (using) fats rather than the sugar glucose for energy.

Diabetic Dermopathy
A characteristic skin disorder found in up to 50% of male adults and 30% of female adults with diabetes. The lesions may be round or oval and usually are red or reddish brown, and usually measure 1-3 inches. They usually occur on the thigh or shin, but may appear also on the scalp, forearm and trunk. There is not an effective treatment and the lesions tend to disappear spontaneously after several years.

Diabetic dermopathy
A skin condition characteristic of diabetes involving light brown or reddish oval or round scaly patches, most often on the shins or front of the thighs and less often on the scalp, forearm and trunk.

Diabetic diet
A specific diet for people suffering from diabetes.

Diabetic Diet
A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Diabetic Diets
A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Diabetic eye disease
1. A disease of the small blood vessels of the retina of the eye in people with diabetes. The vessels swell and leak liquid into the retina, blurring the vision and sometimes leading to blindness. Also called diabetic retinopathy. 2. Any eye disease to which diabetes predisposes including not only diabetic retinopathy but also cataracts (clouding of the lens) and glaucoma (increased fluid pressure inside the eye that can lead to optic nerve damage and loss of vision).

Diabetic Feet
Ulcers of the foot as a complication of diabetes. Diabetic foot, often with infection, is a common serious complication of diabetes and may require hospitalization and disfiguring surgery. The foot ulcers are probably secondary to neuropathies and vascular problems.

Diabetic Foot
Ulcers of the foot as a complication of diabetes. Diabetic foot, often with infection, is a common serious complication of diabetes and may require hospitalization and disfiguring surgery. The foot ulcers are probably secondary to neuropathies and vascular problems.

Diabetic Foot Ulcer
Ulcers of the foot as a complication of diabetes. Diabetic foot, often with infection, is a common serious complication of diabetes and may require hospitalization and disfiguring surgery. The foot ulcers are probably secondary to neuropathies and vascular problems.

Diabetic Foot Ulcers
Ulcers of the foot as a complication of diabetes. Diabetic foot, often with infection, is a common serious complication of diabetes and may require hospitalization and disfiguring surgery. The foot ulcers are probably secondary to neuropathies and vascular problems.

Diabetic Glomeruloscleroses
Includes renal arteriosclerosis, renal arteriolosclerosis, Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome (intercapillary glomerulosclerosis), acute and chronic pyelonephritis, and kidney papillary necrosis in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic Glomerulosclerosis
Includes renal arteriosclerosis, renal arteriolosclerosis, Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome (intercapillary glomerulosclerosis), acute and chronic pyelonephritis, and kidney papillary necrosis in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic Ketoacidoses
Complication of diabetes resulting from severe insulin deficiency coupled with an absolute or relative increase in glucagon concentration. The metabolic acidosis is caused by the breakdown of adipose stores and resulting increased levels of free fatty acids. Glucagon accelerates the oxidation of the free fatty acids producing excess ketone bodies (ketosis).

Diabetic ketoacidosis
High blood glucose with the presence of ketones in the urine and bloodstream, often caused by taking too little insulin or during illness. See: Ketoacidosis.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Complication of diabetes resulting from severe insulin deficiency coupled with an absolute or relative increase in glucagon concentration. The metabolic acidosis is caused by the breakdown of adipose stores and resulting increased levels of free fatty acids. Glucagon accelerates the oxidation of the free fatty acids producing excess ketone bodies (ketosis).

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Severe, out-of-control diabetes (high blood sugar) that needs emergency treatment. DKA is caused by a profound lack of circulating insulin. This may happen because of illness, taking too little insulin, or getting too little exercise. The body starts using stored fat for energy, and ketone bodies (acids) build up in the blood.

Diabetic Ketoses
Complication of diabetes resulting from severe insulin deficiency coupled with an absolute or relative increase in glucagon concentration. The metabolic acidosis is caused by the breakdown of adipose stores and resulting increased levels of free fatty acids. Glucagon accelerates the oxidation of the free fatty acids producing excess ketone bodies (ketosis).

Diabetic Ketosis
Complication of diabetes resulting from severe insulin deficiency coupled with an absolute or relative increase in glucagon concentration. The metabolic acidosis is caused by the breakdown of adipose stores and resulting increased levels of free fatty acids. Glucagon accelerates the oxidation of the free fatty acids producing excess ketone bodies (ketosis).

Diabetic macular edema
Swelling of the retina in diabetes mellitus due to leaking of fluid from blood vessels within the macula. The macula is the central portion of the retina, a small area rich in cones, the specialized nerve endings that detect color and upon which daytime vision depends.

Diabetic Mice, Non-Obese
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.

Diabetic Mice, Nonobese
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.

Diabetic Microangiopathies
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.

Diabetic Microangiopathy
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.

Diabetic Mononeuropathies
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Mononeuropathy
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Mononeuropathy Simplex
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Mononeuropathy Simplices
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Mouse, Non-Obese
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.

Diabetic Mouse, Nonobese
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.

Diabetic musculoskeletal disorder
A musculoskeletal problem associated with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic Myelopathy
Spinal cord damage found in some people with diabetes.

Diabetic Nephropathies
Includes renal arteriosclerosis, renal arteriolosclerosis, Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome (intercapillary glomerulosclerosis), acute and chronic pyelonephritis, and kidney papillary necrosis in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic nephropathy
The kidney disease associated with long-standing diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy is also called Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease (or Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome) or intercapillary glomerulonephritis.

Diabetic Nephropathy
Includes renal arteriosclerosis, renal arteriolosclerosis, Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome (intercapillary glomerulosclerosis), acute and chronic pyelonephritis, and kidney papillary necrosis in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic Neuralgia
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Neuralgias
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Neuropathies
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Neuropathies, Painful
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic neuropathy
A family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. Diabetic neuropathies cause numbness and sometimes pain and weakness in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Neurologic problems in diabetes may occur in every organ system, including the digestive tract, heart, and genitalia. People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but the longer a person has diabetes, the greater is the risk.

Diabetic Neuropathy
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Neuropathy, Painful
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Osteopathy
Loss of foot bone as viewed by x-ray; usually temporary. Also called "disappearing bone disease."

Diabetic Polyneuropathies
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Polyneuropathy
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)

Diabetic Retinopathies
Retinopathy associated with diabetes mellitus, which may be of the background type, progressively characterized by microaneurysms, interretinal punctuate macular edema, or of the proliferative type, characterized by neovascularization of the retina and optic disk, which may project into the vitreous, proliferation of fibrous tissue, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment.

Diabetic Retinopathy
Severe changes in the back of the eye, or the retina, caused by diabetes. These may include ongoing microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages or swelling in the central part of the eye (macula). The proliferative type involves the growth of abnormal blood vessels in the retina or at the optic disc with blood leaking into the jelly part of the eye (vitreous), or a detachment of the retina.

Diabetic skin disease
A skin disorder that is caused by diabetes or affected by diabetes.

Diabetic spinal cord disease
Involvement of the spinal cord in diabetes. Most of the neurologic attention in diabetes mellitus has focused on distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) -- abnormalities of the peripheral nerves, in particular, the nerves to the feet and hands. However, the nerve damage in diabetes can be more generalized and involve the spinal cord. The spinal cord is significantly smaller in diabetic patients with DSP compared to normal, whereas the spinal cord in diabetic patients without DSP is normal. Whether spinal-cord involvement in diabetes is a primary or secondary event in DSP is uncertain, but it is now crystal clear that the spinal cord can be an important target in diabetes.

Diabetics, Pregnancy in
Previously diagnosed diabetics that become pregnant. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance induced by pregnancy but resolved at the end of pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL).

Diabetogenic
Causing diabetes; some drugs cause blood glucose (sugar) to rise, resulting in diabetes.

Diabetol
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)

Diabetologist
A doctor who sees and treats people with diabetes mellitus.

Diabinese
Diabinese is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): chlorpropamide.

Diabutal
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)



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DNA
Deoxyribo-Nucleic acid. DNA molecules carry the genetic information necessary for the organization and functioning of most living cells and control the inheritance of characteristics.

Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA. A substance composed of a double chain of polynucleotides; both chains coiled around a central axis form a double helix. DNA is the basic genetic code or template for amino acid formation.

Dehdroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
A steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands. Its primary function is to inhibit the binding of cortisol.

Diabetes

Dopamine
A neurotransmitter that works in an axis with serotonin.

Dermatitis
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a skin irritation characterized by red, flaky skin, sometimes with cracks or tiny blisters. Dermatitis is extremely itchy, but scratching damages the fragile skin and exacerbates the problem so it is important for people with eczema to try to leave the area alone.

Dominant gene
A gene which, when present on a chromosome, passes on a certain physical characteristic, even when the gene is present in only one copy. A dominant disorder can be inherited from only one parent.

Depression
A mental state of depressed mood characterized by feelings of sadness, despair and discouragement. Depression ranges from normal feelings of the blues through dysthymia to major depression. It in many ways resembles the grief and mourning that follow bereavement, there are often feelings of low self esteem, guilt and self reproach, withdrawal from interpersonal contact and physical symptoms such as eating and sleep disturbances.

Diabetes Mellitus
A metabolic disease caused by an absolute or a relative deficiency of insulin, a hormone that controls how the body processes glucose, protein, and fats. When the body's insulin supply is decreased, it cannot process carbohydrates and it compensates by overprocessing fats and protein. The condition is characterized by chronic high blood sugar and sugar in the urine. Diabetes mellitus can result in coma. Over time, complications can include nerve injury, blindness, kidney failure, and premature atherosclerosis with all of its complications.

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