Depression
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  Depression



Depression

    A mental state of depressed mood characterized by feelings of sadness, despair and discouragement. Depression ranges from normal feelings of the blues through dysthymia to major depression. It in many ways resembles the grief and mourning that follow bereavement, there are often feelings of low self esteem, guilt and self reproach, withdrawal from interpersonal contact and physical symptoms such as eating and sleep disturbances.

RELATED TERMS
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Mood
A pervasive and sustained emotion that colors the perception of the world. Common examples of mood include depression, elation, anger, and anxiety. In contrast to affect, which refers to more fluctuating changes in emotional "weather," mood refers to a more pervasive and sustained emotional "climate." Types of mood include: dysphoric, elevated, euthymic, expansive, irritable.

Feelings
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.

Depression
A mental state of depressed mood characterized by feelings of sadness, despair and discouragement. Depression ranges from normal feelings of the blues through dysthymia to major depression. It in many ways resembles the grief and mourning that follow bereavement, there are often feelings of low self esteem, guilt and self reproach, withdrawal from interpersonal contact and physical symptoms such as eating and sleep disturbances.

Dysthymia
A type of depression involving long-term, chronic symptoms that are not disabling, but keep a person from functioning at "full steam" or from feeling good. Dysthymia is a less severe type of depression than what is accorded the diagnosis of major depression. However, people with dysthymia may also sometimes experience major depressive episodes, suggesting that there is a continuum between dysthymia and major depression.

Grief
Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.

Bereavement
To be in a sad or lonely state due to a loss or death.

Withdrawal
The act or process of giving up the use of a drug to which one has become addicted or dependent.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Depreciation
Decline in value of capital assets of a permanent or fixed nature over time with use.

Depreciations
Decline in value of capital assets of a permanent or fixed nature over time with use.

Depressan
1,4-Dihydrazinophthalazine. An antihypertensive agent with actions and uses similiar to those of HYDRALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p354)

Depressant Factor, Myocardial
A low molecular weight peptide of about 800-1000 having a negative inotropic effect. It is released into the circulation during experimental hemorrhagic pancreatitis, severe ischemia, and postoligemic shock.

Depressants, Appetite
Agents that are used to decrease appetite.

Depressants, Cardiac
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.

Depressants, CNS
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).

Depressants, Myocardial
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.

Depressed Level of Consciousness
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.

Depressed Skull Fracture
A skull fracture characterized by inward depression of a fragment or section of cranial bone, often compressing the underlying dura mater and brain. Depressed cranial fractures which feature open skin wounds that communicate with skull fragments are referred to as compound depressed skull fractures.

Depressed Skull Fractures
A skull fracture characterized by inward depression of a fragment or section of cranial bone, often compressing the underlying dura mater and brain. Depressed cranial fractures which feature open skin wounds that communicate with skull fragments are referred to as compound depressed skull fractures.

Depressin
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.

Depression treatment
A combination of several medical actions, interventions and prescriptions aimed at tackling a patient's depression condition.

Depression, Bipolar
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.

Depression, dysthymia
A type of depression involving long-term, chronic symptoms that are not disabling, but keep a person from functioning at "full steam" or from feeling good. Dysthymia is a less severe type of depression than what is accorded the diagnosis of major depression. However, people with dysthymia may also sometimes experience major depressive episodes, suggesting that there is a continuum between dysthymia and major depression.

Depression, Emotional
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.

Depression, Endogenous
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depression, Involutional
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.

Depression, major
A disease that interferes with the ability to work, sleep, eat, and enjoy once pleasurable activities.

Depression, Neurotic
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depression, Post-Natal
Depression in women occurring usually within four weeks after the delivery of a child. The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)

Depression, Post-Partum
Depression in women occurring usually within four weeks after the delivery of a child. The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)

Depression, Postnatal
Depression in women occurring usually within four weeks after the delivery of a child. The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)

Depression, Postpartum
Depression in women occurring usually within four weeks after the delivery of a child. The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)

Depression, Reactive
Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.

Depression, Reactive, Psychotic
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.

Depression, Tooth
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.

Depression, Unipolar
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depressions
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.

Depressions, Emotional
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.

Depressions, Endogenous
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depressions, Neurotic
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depressions, Reactive
Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.

Depressions, Tooth
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.

Depressions, Unipolar
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depressions, Ventilatory
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Depressive Disorder
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depressive Disorder, Major
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.

Depressive Disorders
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depressive Neuroses
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depressive Neurosis
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depressive Symptom
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.

Depressive Symptoms
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.

Depressive Syndrome
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Depressive Syndromes
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Deprivation, Cultural
The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.

Deprivation, Food
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.

Deprivation, Maternal
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.

Deprivation, Paternal
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the father.

Deprivation, Psychosocial
The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.

Deprivation, REM Sleep
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.

Deprivation, Sensory
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.

Deprivation, Sleep
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.

Deprivation, Water
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.

Deprivation-Induced Amblyopia, Stimulus
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.

Deprivation-Induced Amblyopias, Stimulus
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.

Deprivations, Cultural
The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.

Deprivations, Food
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.

Deprivations, Maternal
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.

Deprivations, Paternal
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the father.

Deprivations, Psychosocial
The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.

Deprivations, REM Sleep
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.

Deprivations, Sensory
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.

Deprivations, Sleep
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.

Deprivations, Water
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Dehdroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
A steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands. Its primary function is to inhibit the binding of cortisol.

Diabetes
A condition in which blood glucose is not well controlled. Type I diabetics make no insulin, whereas type 2 diabetics are characterized by the overproduction of insulin, but the inability of the target cells to respond to the insulin.

Dopamine
A neurotransmitter that works in an axis with serotonin.

Dermatitis
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a skin irritation characterized by red, flaky skin, sometimes with cracks or tiny blisters. Dermatitis is extremely itchy, but scratching damages the fragile skin and exacerbates the problem so it is important for people with eczema to try to leave the area alone.

Dominant gene
A gene which, when present on a chromosome, passes on a certain physical characteristic, even when the gene is present in only one copy. A dominant disorder can be inherited from only one parent.

Depression

Diabetes Mellitus
A metabolic disease caused by an absolute or a relative deficiency of insulin, a hormone that controls how the body processes glucose, protein, and fats. When the body's insulin supply is decreased, it cannot process carbohydrates and it compensates by overprocessing fats and protein. The condition is characterized by chronic high blood sugar and sugar in the urine. Diabetes mellitus can result in coma. Over time, complications can include nerve injury, blindness, kidney failure, and premature atherosclerosis with all of its complications.

Diabetic Retinopathy
Severe changes in the back of the eye, or the retina, caused by diabetes. These may include ongoing microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages or swelling in the central part of the eye (macula). The proliferative type involves the growth of abnormal blood vessels in the retina or at the optic disc with blood leaking into the jelly part of the eye (vitreous), or a detachment of the retina.

Diplopia
Diplopia is a visual disorder that results in double vision, such that when the viewer looks at an object it seems as if there are two objects. It can arise when the eye muscles are not functioning as intended, and the eyes are not correctly aligned while focusing on an object. This binocular diplopia disappears when one eye is closed.

Dyscalculia
Is a term used to refer to learning disabilities that involve arithmetic comprehension or computation. This difficulty in mastering concepts or computations is usually associated with neurological dysfunction or brain damage and is classified as developmental (occurring before birth from genetic or congenital problems) or acquired (occurring after birth usually from a traumatic brain injury).

Dysgraphia
Dysgraphia is the inability to write, regardless of ability to read. People with dysgraphia often can write, but lack co-ordination, and find other fine motor tasks like tying shoes difficult. They also lack basic spelling skills, and often will say the wrong word when trying to formulate thoughts.

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