Demyelination
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  Demyelination



Demyelination

   A degenerative process that erodes away the myelin sheath that normally protects nerve fibers. Demyelination exposes these fibers and appears to cause problems in nerve impulse conduction that may affect many physical systems. Demyelinization is seen in a number of diseases, particularly multiple sclerosis. Diagnosis is by functional observation and by testing for myelin protein in the blood.

RELATED TERMS
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Myelin
The lipid substance forming a sheath around the axons of certain nerve fibers.

Nerve
Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.

Demyelination
A degenerative process that erodes away the myelin sheath that normally protects nerve fibers. Demyelination exposes these fibers and appears to cause problems in nerve impulse conduction that may affect many physical systems. Demyelinization is seen in a number of diseases, particularly multiple sclerosis. Diagnosis is by functional observation and by testing for myelin protein in the blood.

Affect
This word is used to described observable behavior that represents the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion). Common examples of affect are sadness, fear, joy, and anger. The normal range of expressed affect varies considerably between different cultures and even within the same culture. Types of affect include: euthymic, irritable, constricted; blunted; flat; inappropriate, and labile.

Diseases
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.

Sclerosis
Hardening.

Diagnosis
The determination of the presence of a specific disease or infection, usually accomplished by evaluating clinical symptoms and laboratory tests.

Protein
Any of a group of complex organic compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur, the characteristic element being nitrogen. Proteins, the principal constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, are of high molecular weight and consist essentially of combinations of a-amino acids in peptide linkages. Twenty different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, and each protein has a unique genetically defined amino acid sequence which determines its specific shape and function. Their roles include enzymatic catalysis, transport and storage, coordinated motion, nerve impulse generation and many others.

Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Demyelinating Autoimmune Disease, Peripheral
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.

Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, Brain
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.

Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, Central Nervous System
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.

Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, Cerebral
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.

Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.

Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, Spinal Cord
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.

Demyelinating Autoimmune Disorders, CNS
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.

Demyelinating Central Nervous System Diseases, Hereditary
Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of myelin in the central nervous system.

Demyelinating Disease
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.

Demyelinating Disease, Autoimmune, CNS
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.

Demyelinating Disease, Peripheral Autoimmune
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.

Demyelinating Diseases
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.

Demyelinating Diseases, Central Nervous System, Hereditary
Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of myelin in the central nervous system.

Demyelinating Disorder
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.

Demyelinating Disorders
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.

Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy, Acute Inflammatory
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

Demyelinations
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.

Demyelinative Myelitis
Inflammation of a transverse portion of the spinal cord characterized by acute or subacute segmental demyelination or necrosis. The condition may occur sporadically, follow an infection or vaccination, or present as a paraneoplastic syndrome (see also ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED). Clinical manifestations include motor weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1242-6)



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Delivery, footling
There are single-footling or double-footling deliveries depending upon whether the presenting part of the baby at delivery is just one foot or both feet.

Delta cell, pancreatic
A type of cell in the pancreas (the organ of the digestive system located behind the stomach). Within the pancreas, the delta cells are located in areas called the islets of Langerhans. The delta cells make somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of numerous hormones in the body.

Delusional parasitosis
A mistaken belief that one is infested by parasites such as mites, lice, fleas, spiders, worms, or other organisms.

Demarcation
A setting of limits; a boundary; marking the limits of, delimiting; setting apart, separating. The word "demarcation" is used in medicine mainly in the sense of determining and marking off boundaries. For example, the surface demarcation in respect to damaged tissue can refer to the boundary between the living tissue and the necrotic (dead) tissue.

Demonophobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of evil supernatural beings in persons who believe such beings exist and roam freely to cause harm. Those who suffer from this phobia realize their fear is excessive or irrational. Nevertheless, they become unduly anxious when discussing demons, when venturing alone into woods or a dark house, or when watching films about demonic possession and exorcism.

Demyelination

Dendritic
Referring to a dendrite, a short arm-like protuberance from a nerve cell (a neuron). Dendrites from neurons next to one another are tipped by synapses (tiny transmitters and receivers for chemical messages between the cells).

Dendritic cell


Denervate
To deprive of the nerve supply. Denervate is the opposite of innervate.

Denervation
Loss of nerve supply. There are many causes of denervation. Denervation may be due to a disease as, for example, in polio where the death of motor neurons causes the denervation of muscle fibers. Denervation may be due to a chemical (such as botox) or physical injury or interruption of a nerve (as by accident or to relieve pain).

Dengue fever
An acute mosquito-borne viral illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with headache, fever, prostration, severe joint and muscle pain, swollen glands (lymphadenopathy) and rash. The presence (the "dengue triad") of fever, rash, and headache (and other pains) is particularly characteristic of dengue. Dengue is endemic throughout the tropics and subtropics. It goes by other names including breakbone or dandy fever. Victims of dengue often have contortions due to the intense joint and muscle pain.

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