Deficiency Disease, Acid Maltase
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  Deficiency Disease, Acid Maltase



Deficiency Disease, Acid Maltase

   An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

RELATED TERMS
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Autosomal
"Pertaining to a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; relating to any one of the chromosomes save the sex chromosomes. People normally have 22 pairs of autosomes (44 autosomes) in each cell together with two sex chromosomes (X and Y in the male and XX in the female). "

Glycogen
The storage form of glucose. Only glycogen from the liver can be used to restore blood glucose levels.

Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

Muscle
Tissue made up of bundles of long, slender cells that contract when stimulated.

HEART
The hollow, muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system.

LIVER
The largest organ in the body. The liver carries out many important functions, such as making bile, changing food into energy, and cleaning alcohol and poisons from the blood.

CORD
1. In anatomy, a long ropelike structure. 2. Short for the spinal cord or the umbilical cord.

BRAIN
"That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium (skull). The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called ""hemispheres."" "

Forms
A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the developing, maintaining, and handling of forms and records.

Childhood
1. The time for a boy or girl from birth until he or she is an adult. 2. The more circumscribed period of time from infancy to the onset of puberty.

Adult
A person having attained full growth or maturity. Adults are of 19 through 44 years of age.

Infancy
Babyhood; the period of development between birth and the beginning of early childhood between the ages of two and three years.

Hypotonia
Abnormally decreased tonicity, tension or strength; ocular hypotony refers to low intraocular pressure.

Cardiomyopathy
A disease of the heart muscle that causes it to lose its pumping strength.

Proximal
Located closest to the reference point. See distal.

Nerve
Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.

Neurology
The branch of medicine that pertains to the nervous system.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Defiance Regional Medical Center
The Defiance Regional Medical Center is a hospital in Defiance, Ohio, United States.

Defibrase
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.

Defibrillation
The use of a carefully controlled electric shock, administered either through a device on the exterior of the chest wall or directly to the exposed heart muscle, to restart or normalize heart rhythms.

Defibrillation, Electric
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Defibrillations, Electric
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Defibrillator
An electronic device used to establish normal heartbeat.

Defibrillator, Implantable
Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.

Defibrillator, implantable cardiac
A device put within the body that is designed to recognize certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and correct them.

Defibrillators, Implantable
Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.

Defibrol
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.

Deficiencies, alpha 1-Antitrypsin
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN, leading primarily to degradation of elastin of the alveolar walls, as well as other structural proteins of a variety of tissues. (From Scriver, Beaudet, Sly, & Valle, The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 7th ed, p4125)

Deficiencies, Antithrombin 3
An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.

Deficiencies, Antithrombin III
An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.

Deficiencies, Biotinidase
The late onset form of MULTIPLE CARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY (deficiency of the activities of biotin-dependent enzymes propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE) due to a defect or deficiency in biotinidase which is essential for recycling BIOTIN.

Deficiencies, Brancher
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of branching enzyme (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal glycogen with long outer branches. Clinical features are muscle hypotonia and cirrhosis. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2.

Deficiencies, Choline
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Deficiencies, Combined Carboxylase
A deficiency in the activities of biotin-dependent enzymes (propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE) due to one of two defects in BIOTIN metabolism. The neonatal form is due to HOLOCARBOXYLASE SYNTHETASE DEFICIENCY. The late-onset form is due to BIOTINIDASE DEFICIENCY.

Deficiencies, Cytochrome Oxidase
A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

Deficiencies, Cytochrome-c Oxidase
A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

Deficiencies, Debrancher
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.

Deficiencies, Factor II
Absence or reduced levels of prothrombin in the blood.

Deficiencies, Factor IX
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)

Deficiencies, Factor VII
An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.

Deficiencies, Factor VIII
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.

Deficiencies, Factor X
Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.

Deficiencies, Factor XII
An absence or reduced level of blood coagulation factor XII. It normally occurs in the absence of patient or family history of hemorrhagic disorders and is marked by prolonged clotting time.

Deficiencies, Factor XIII
A deficiency of blood coagulation FACTOR XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor (FSF) that prevents blood clot formation and results in a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.

Deficiencies, Fibrinogen
A deficiency or absence of fibrinogen (coagulation factor I) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Deficiencies, Folic Acid
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)

Deficiencies, Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

Deficiencies, Fructose-1,6-Diphosphatase
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

Deficiencies, Fructose-Biphosphatase
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

Deficiencies, Fructosediphosphatase
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

Deficiencies, Glucose-6-Phosphatase
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Deficiencies, Glucosephosphatase
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Deficiencies, Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of enzyme activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.

Deficiencies, GPD
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of enzyme activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.

Deficiencies, Hexosediphosphatase
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

Deficiencies, Holocarboxylase Synthetase
The neonatal form of MULTIPLE CARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY that is caused by a defect or deficiency in holocarboxylase synthetase. HLCS is the enzyme that covalently links biotin to the biotin dependent carboxylases (propionyl-CoA-carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, and beta-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase).

Deficiencies, IgA
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.

Deficiencies, IgG
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Deficiencies, Lecithin Acyltransferase
A disease characterized by deficiency or low levels of plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase. Clinical manifestations include corneal opacity, anemia, and proteinuria.

Deficiencies, Mental
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual is mentally retarded. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline mentally retarded range. Scores below 67 are in the retarded range. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)

Deficiencies, Multiple Carboxylase
A deficiency in the activities of biotin-dependent enzymes (propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE) due to one of two defects in BIOTIN metabolism. The neonatal form is due to HOLOCARBOXYLASE SYNTHETASE DEFICIENCY. The late-onset form is due to BIOTINIDASE DEFICIENCY.

Deficiencies, Muscle Phosphofructokinase
An autosomal recessive glycogen storage disease in which there is deficient expression of 6-phosphofructose 1-kinase in muscle (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE) resulting in abnormal deposition of glycogen in muscle tissue. These patients have severe congenital muscular dystrophy and are exercise intolerant.

Deficiencies, Muscle Phosphorylase
Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.

Deficiencies, Oxidative Phosphorylation
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.

Deficiencies, Oxygen
Clinical manifestation of respiratory distress consisting of a relatively complete absence of oxygen.

Deficiencies, Potassium
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing polyuria and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary polydipsia. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)

Deficiencies, Prothrombin
Absence or reduced levels of prothrombin in the blood.

Deficiencies, Respiratory Chain
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.

Deficiencies, Riboflavin
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Deficiencies, Smooth Pursuit
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)

Deficiencies, Storage Pool
Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.

Deficiencies, Thiamine
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)

Deficiencies, Vitamin
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Deficiencies, Vitamin A
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)

Deficiencies, Vitamin B12
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)

Deficiencies, Vitamin B6
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.

Deficiencies, Vitamin D
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)

Deficiencies, Vitamin E
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)

Deficiencies, Vitamin K
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)

Deficiency Disease
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Deficiency Disease Hexosaminidase A
An autosomal recessive inherited gangliosidosis characterized by the onset in the first 6 months of life of an exaggerated startle response, delay in psychomotor development, hypotonia (followed by spasticity), visual loss, and a macular cherry red spot. Hexosaminidase A (see BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE) is deficient, leading to the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in neurons of the central nervous system and retina. This condition is strongly associated with Askenazic Jewish ancestory. (Menkes, Textbook of Pediatric Neurology, 5th ed pp89-96)

Deficiency Disease, 4 Hydroxyphenol Pyruvic Acid Oxidase
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Deficiency Disease, 4-Hydroxyphenol Pyruvic Acid Oxidase
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Deficiency Disease, Alpha Aminoadipic Semialdehyde
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Deficiency Disease, alpha Fucosidase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Deficiency Disease, alpha High Density Lipoprotein
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Deficiency Disease, alpha High-Density Lipoprotein
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Deficiency Disease, alpha L Fucosidase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Deficiency Disease, Alpha-Aminoadipic Semialdehyde
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Deficiency Disease, alpha-Fucosidase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Deficiency Disease, alpha-L-Fucosidase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Deficiency Disease, Apolipoprotein B
A disorder of lipid metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait characterized by the near absence of APOLIPOPROTEINS B and apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is deficient or absent in enterocytes. Clinical and laboratory findings include acanthocytosis, hypocholesterolemia, peripheral neuropathy, posterior column degeneration, ataxia, and steatorrhea. Intellectual abilities may also be impaired. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118; Curr Opin Lipidol 1994 Apr;5(2):81-6)

Deficiency Disease, Arginase
A rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. It is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme type I ARGINASE. Arginine is elevated in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and periodic hyperammonemia may occur. Disease onset is usually in infancy or early childhood. Clinical manifestations include seizures, microcephaly, progressive mental impairment, hypotonia, ataxia, spastic diplegia, and quadriparesis. (From Hum Genet 1993 Mar;91(1):1-5; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p51)

Deficiency Disease, Argininosuccinate Synthase
A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)

Deficiency Disease, Argininosuccinic Acid Synthase
A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)

Deficiency Disease, Arylsulfatase A
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE leading to an accumulation of cerebroside sulfate in the nervous system and other organs. Pathologic features include diffuse demyelination and metachromatically-staining granules within glial cells, macrophages, and free in tissue. Clinical subtypes include late infantile, juvenile, and adult forms. The late infantile form presents at 12-18 months of age with progressive psychomotor retardation, ATAXIA, spasticity, and OPTIC ATROPHY. The juvenile form has onset at 4-12 years and features behavioral alterations and ataxia followed by spasticity, DEMENTIA, and visual loss. The adult form presents in the second decade or later with psychiatric manifestations, gait difficulties, and less often as a peripheral neuropathy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp192-5)

Deficiency Disease, Aspartoacylase
A rare neurodegenerative condition of infancy or childhood characterized by white matter vacuolization and demeylination that gives rise to a spongy appearance. Aspartoacylase deficiency leads to an accumulation of N-acetylaspartate in astrocytes. Inheritance may be autosomal recessive or the illness may occur sporadically. This illness occurs more frequently in individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. The neonatal form features the onset of hypotonia and lethargy at birth, rapidly progressing to coma and death. The infantile form features developmental delay, DYSKINESIAS, hypotonia, spasticity, blindness, and megalencephaly. The juvenile form is characterized by ATAXIA; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEMENTIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p944; Am J Med Genet 1988 Feb;29(2):463-71)

Deficiency Disease, Betalipoprotein
A disorder of lipid metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait characterized by the near absence of APOLIPOPROTEINS B and apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is deficient or absent in enterocytes. Clinical and laboratory findings include acanthocytosis, hypocholesterolemia, peripheral neuropathy, posterior column degeneration, ataxia, and steatorrhea. Intellectual abilities may also be impaired. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118; Curr Opin Lipidol 1994 Apr;5(2):81-6)

Deficiency Disease, Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase
A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)

Deficiency Disease, Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia)
A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)

Deficiency Disease, Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase
A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)

Deficiency Disease, Carbamoylphosphate Synthetase I
A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)

Deficiency Disease, Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase
A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)

Deficiency Disease, Cerebroside Sulphatase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE leading to an accumulation of cerebroside sulfate in the nervous system and other organs. Pathologic features include diffuse demyelination and metachromatically-staining granules within glial cells, macrophages, and free in tissue. Clinical subtypes include late infantile, juvenile, and adult forms. The late infantile form presents at 12-18 months of age with progressive psychomotor retardation, ATAXIA, spasticity, and OPTIC ATROPHY. The juvenile form has onset at 4-12 years and features behavioral alterations and ataxia followed by spasticity, DEMENTIA, and visual loss. The adult form presents in the second decade or later with psychiatric manifestations, gait difficulties, and less often as a peripheral neuropathy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp192-5)

Deficiency Disease, Complete HGPRT
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)

Deficiency Disease, Cystathionine beta Synthase
An autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall, slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varis, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)

Deficiency Disease, Cystathionine beta-Synthase
An autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall, slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varis, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)

Deficiency Disease, Dihydropteridine Reductase
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).

Deficiency Disease, Familial alpha Lipoprotein
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Deficiency Disease, Familial alpha-Lipoprotein
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Deficiency Disease, Fucosidase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Deficiency Disease, Fumarylacetoacetase
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Deficiency Disease, Galactokinase
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)

Deficiency Disease, Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)

Deficiency Disease, Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyl-Transferase
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)

Deficiency Disease, Galactosylceramidase
An autosomal recessive inherited sphingolipidosis caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to an accumulation of PSYCHOSINE in LYSOSOMES of the BRAIN; PERIPHERAL NERVES; LIVER; KIDNEY; and LEUKOCYTES. In the nervous sytem there is prominent central and peripheral demyelination. The infantile form presents at age 4-6 months with psychomotor retardation, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, and tonic spasms induced by minor stimuli. Death occurs within two years. Later onset forms of this disease are characterized by a less fulminant course. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp195-7)

Deficiency Disease, Galactosylceramide beta Galactosidase
An autosomal recessive inherited sphingolipidosis caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to an accumulation of PSYCHOSINE in LYSOSOMES of the BRAIN; PERIPHERAL NERVES; LIVER; KIDNEY; and LEUKOCYTES. In the nervous sytem there is prominent central and peripheral demyelination. The infantile form presents at age 4-6 months with psychomotor retardation, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, and tonic spasms induced by minor stimuli. Death occurs within two years. Later onset forms of this disease are characterized by a less fulminant course. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp195-7)

Deficiency Disease, Galactosylceramide-beta-Galactosidase
An autosomal recessive inherited sphingolipidosis caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to an accumulation of PSYCHOSINE in LYSOSOMES of the BRAIN; PERIPHERAL NERVES; LIVER; KIDNEY; and LEUKOCYTES. In the nervous sytem there is prominent central and peripheral demyelination. The infantile form presents at age 4-6 months with psychomotor retardation, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, and tonic spasms induced by minor stimuli. Death occurs within two years. Later onset forms of this disease are characterized by a less fulminant course. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp195-7)

Deficiency Disease, Ganglioside Sialidase
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. Mental retardation and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)

Deficiency Disease, Glucocerebrosidase
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Deficiency Disease, Glucosylceramide Beta Glucosidase
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Deficiency Disease, Glucosylceramide Beta-Glucosidase
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Deficiency Disease, GM2 Protein Activator
Inherited diseases characterized by the accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in central nervous system lysosomes and variably in other tissues. Subtypes include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE, as well as an AB variant of BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE deficiency and an adult onset form of GM2 Gangliosidosis.

Deficiency Disease, HDL Lipoprotein
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Deficiency Disease, Hexosaminidase A and B
An autosomal inherited disease caused by deficiency of the enzymes hexosaminidase A & B (see BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE) which leads to an accumulation of GM2 ganglioside and the sphingolipid globoside in neurons and other organs. Clinical manifestations resemble TAY-SACHS DISEASE, but the disease is not limited to Askenazi Jews and may feature hepatosplenomegaly. The infantile form presents in the first 4 months of life with psychomotor delay, hypotonia followed by spasticity, and cherry red spots in the macula. Rare juvenile and adult forms have been reported. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p92)

Deficiency Disease, Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)

Deficiency Disease, Hypoxanthine-Phosphoribosyl-Transferase
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)

Deficiency Disease, Lysine Alpha Ketoglutarate Reductase
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Deficiency Disease, Lysine Alpha-Ketoglutarate Reductase
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Deficiency Disease, Lysosomal alpha-1,4-Glucosidase
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Deficiency Disease, Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein
A disorder of lipid metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait characterized by the near absence of APOLIPOPROTEINS B and apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is deficient or absent in enterocytes. Clinical and laboratory findings include acanthocytosis, hypocholesterolemia, peripheral neuropathy, posterior column degeneration, ataxia, and steatorrhea. Intellectual abilities may also be impaired. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118; Curr Opin Lipidol 1994 Apr;5(2):81-6)

Deficiency Disease, Multiple Sulfatase
A group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by an excessive intra-lysosomal deposition of glycosphingolipids and phosphosphingolipids in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and, to a variable degree, in visceral structures. Clinical features vary with the specific subtype of the disease, but common features include progressive deterioration in psychomotor and visual function. (From Arch Neurol 1998 Aug;55(8):1055-6; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p89)

Deficiency Disease, Multiple Sulphatase
A group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by an excessive intra-lysosomal deposition of glycosphingolipids and phosphosphingolipids in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and, to a variable degree, in visceral structures. Clinical features vary with the specific subtype of the disease, but common features include progressive deterioration in psychomotor and visual function. (From Arch Neurol 1998 Aug;55(8):1055-6; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p89)

Deficiency Disease, Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase
An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as a sex-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)

Deficiency Disease, Ornithine Transcarbamylase
An inherited urea cycle disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme ORNITHINE CARBAMOYLTRANSFERASE, transmitted as a sex-linked trait and featuring elevations of amino acids and ammonia in the serum. Clinical features, which are more prominent in males, include seizures, behavioral alterations, episodic vomiting, lethargy, and coma. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp49-50)

Deficiency Disease, PDHC
An inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient enzyme activity in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX, resulting in deficiency of acetyl CoA and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine. Two clinical forms are recognized: neonatal and juvenile. The neonatal form is a relatively common cause of lactic acidosis in the first weeks of life and may also feature an erythematous rash. The juvenile form presents with lactic acidosis, alopecia, intermittent ATAXIA, SEIZURES, and an erythematous rash. (From J Inherit Metab Dis 1996;19(4):452-62) Autosomal recessive and X-linked forms are caused by mutations in the genes for the three different enzyme components of this multisubunit pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. One of the mutations at Xp22.2-p22.1 in the gene for the E1 alpha component of the complex leads to LEIGH DISEASE.

Deficiency Disease, Phenylalanine Hydroxylase
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).

Deficiency Disease, Phenylalanine Hydroxylase, Severe
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).

Deficiency Disease, Pyruvate Carboxylase
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by absent or decreased PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE activity, the enzyme that regulates gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and neurotransmitter synthesis. Clinical manifestations include lactic acidosis, seizures, respiratory distress, marked psychomotor delay, periodic HYPOGLYCEMIA, and hypotonia. The clinical course may be similar to LEIGH DISEASE. (From Am J Hum Genet 1998 Jun;62(6):1312-9)

Deficiency Disease, Saccharopine Dehydrogenase
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Deficiency Disease, Sphingomyelinase
A group of diseases marked by autosomal recessive inheritance and accumulation of sphingomyelin in cells of the RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM. They are divided into 5 subtypes: A-E. Type A (classic infantile form) is caused by a deficiency of SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE and presents at age 6-12 months with progressive hepatosplenomegaly and neurologic deterioration. Type B (non-neuronopathic form) presents in childhood with hepatosplenomegaly and pulmonary infiltrates. Type C (chronic neuronopathic form) is caused by defective intracellular cholesterol transport and is divided into severe infantile, late infantile, juvenile, and neonatal hepatitis forms. Type D (Nova Scotian Variant) is phenotypically similar to type C. Type E is an adult non-neuronopathic form. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp101-4)

Deficiency Disease, Tyrosine Transaminase
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Deficiency Disease, UDP Galactose 4 Epimerase
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)

Deficiency Disease, UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)

Deficiency Disease, UDPglucose 4 Epimerase
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)

Deficiency Disease, UDPglucose 4-Epimerase
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)

Deficiency diseases
Any disorder caused by a lack of essential nutrients.

Deficiency Diseases
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Deficiency Diseases, alpha-Fucosidase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Deficiency Diseases, alpha-L-Fucosidase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Deficiency Diseases, Arginase
A rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. It is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme type I ARGINASE. Arginine is elevated in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and periodic hyperammonemia may occur. Disease onset is usually in infancy or early childhood. Clinical manifestations include seizures, microcephaly, progressive mental impairment, hypotonia, ataxia, spastic diplegia, and quadriparesis. (From Hum Genet 1993 Mar;91(1):1-5; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p51)

Deficiency Diseases, Aspartoacylase
A rare neurodegenerative condition of infancy or childhood characterized by white matter vacuolization and demeylination that gives rise to a spongy appearance. Aspartoacylase deficiency leads to an accumulation of N-acetylaspartate in astrocytes. Inheritance may be autosomal recessive or the illness may occur sporadically. This illness occurs more frequently in individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. The neonatal form features the onset of hypotonia and lethargy at birth, rapidly progressing to coma and death. The infantile form features developmental delay, DYSKINESIAS, hypotonia, spasticity, blindness, and megalencephaly. The juvenile form is characterized by ATAXIA; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEMENTIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p944; Am J Med Genet 1988 Feb;29(2):463-71)

Deficiency Diseases, Betalipoprotein
A disorder of lipid metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait characterized by the near absence of APOLIPOPROTEINS B and apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is deficient or absent in enterocytes. Clinical and laboratory findings include acanthocytosis, hypocholesterolemia, peripheral neuropathy, posterior column degeneration, ataxia, and steatorrhea. Intellectual abilities may also be impaired. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118; Curr Opin Lipidol 1994 Apr;5(2):81-6)

Deficiency Diseases, Fucosidase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Deficiency Diseases, Fumarylacetoacetase
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Deficiency Diseases, Galactosylceramidase
An autosomal recessive inherited sphingolipidosis caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to an accumulation of PSYCHOSINE in LYSOSOMES of the BRAIN; PERIPHERAL NERVES; LIVER; KIDNEY; and LEUKOCYTES. In the nervous sytem there is prominent central and peripheral demyelination. The infantile form presents at age 4-6 months with psychomotor retardation, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, and tonic spasms induced by minor stimuli. Death occurs within two years. Later onset forms of this disease are characterized by a less fulminant course. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp195-7)

Deficiency Diseases, Galactosylceramide-beta-Galactosidase
An autosomal recessive inherited sphingolipidosis caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to an accumulation of PSYCHOSINE in LYSOSOMES of the BRAIN; PERIPHERAL NERVES; LIVER; KIDNEY; and LEUKOCYTES. In the nervous sytem there is prominent central and peripheral demyelination. The infantile form presents at age 4-6 months with psychomotor retardation, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, and tonic spasms induced by minor stimuli. Death occurs within two years. Later onset forms of this disease are characterized by a less fulminant course. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp195-7)

Deficiency Diseases, Glucocerebrosidase
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Deficiency Diseases, Hypoxanthine-Phosphoribosyl-Transferase
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)

Deficiency Diseases, PDHC
An inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient enzyme activity in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX, resulting in deficiency of acetyl CoA and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine. Two clinical forms are recognized: neonatal and juvenile. The neonatal form is a relatively common cause of lactic acidosis in the first weeks of life and may also feature an erythematous rash. The juvenile form presents with lactic acidosis, alopecia, intermittent ATAXIA, SEIZURES, and an erythematous rash. (From J Inherit Metab Dis 1996;19(4):452-62) Autosomal recessive and X-linked forms are caused by mutations in the genes for the three different enzyme components of this multisubunit pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. One of the mutations at Xp22.2-p22.1 in the gene for the E1 alpha component of the complex leads to LEIGH DISEASE.

Deficiency Diseases, Sphingomyelinase
A group of diseases marked by autosomal recessive inheritance and accumulation of sphingomyelin in cells of the RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM. They are divided into 5 subtypes: A-E. Type A (classic infantile form) is caused by a deficiency of SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE and presents at age 6-12 months with progressive hepatosplenomegaly and neurologic deterioration. Type B (non-neuronopathic form) presents in childhood with hepatosplenomegaly and pulmonary infiltrates. Type C (chronic neuronopathic form) is caused by defective intracellular cholesterol transport and is divided into severe infantile, late infantile, juvenile, and neonatal hepatitis forms. Type D (Nova Scotian Variant) is phenotypically similar to type C. Type E is an adult non-neuronopathic form. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp101-4)

Deficiency Diseases, UDP-Galactose-4-Epimerase
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)

Deficiency Syndrome, Antibody
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

Deficiency Syndrome, Immunologic
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

Deficiency Syndrome, Immunological
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

Deficiency Syndrome, Leukocyte Adhesion
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.

Deficiency Syndrome, Leukocyte-Adhesion
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.

Deficiency Syndromes, Antibody
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

Deficiency Syndromes, Immunologic
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

Deficiency Syndromes, Immunological
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

Deficiency Syndromes, Leukocyte-Adhesion
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.

Deficiency, adenosine deaminase (ADA)
A genetic (inherited) condition that results in a immune deficiency disorder called severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Adenosine deaminase is an enzyme that plays a key role in salvaging purine molecules.

Deficiency, alpha 1-Antitrypsin
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN, leading primarily to degradation of elastin of the alveolar walls, as well as other structural proteins of a variety of tissues. (From Scriver, Beaudet, Sly, & Valle, The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, 7th ed, p4125)

Deficiency, ankyrin
Known also as hereditary spherocytosis (HS), this is a genetic disorder of the red blood cell membrane clinically characterized by anemia, jaundice (yellowing) and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen), due to deficiency of ankyrin, a protein in the membrane of the red cell.

Deficiency, Antithrombin 3
An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.

Deficiency, Antithrombin III
An absence or reduced level of Antithrombin III leading to an increased risk for thrombosis.

Deficiency, Argininosuccinic Acid Synthetase, Complete
A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)

Deficiency, Argininosuccinic Acid Synthetase, Partial
A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)

Deficiency, Biotinidase
The late onset form of MULTIPLE CARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY (deficiency of the activities of biotin-dependent enzymes propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE) due to a defect or deficiency in biotinidase which is essential for recycling BIOTIN.

Deficiency, Brancher
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of branching enzyme (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal glycogen with long outer branches. Clinical features are muscle hypotonia and cirrhosis. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2.

Deficiency, ceruloplasmin
Lack of the protein ceruloplasmin from the blood and accumulation of iron in the pancreas, liver and brain, causing diabetes and progressive nervous system degeneration with the tremors and gait abnormalities characteristic of Parkinson disease. Ceruloplasmin deficiency is agenetic condition, also known as aceruloplasminemia.

Deficiency, Choline
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Deficiency, Combined Carboxylase
A deficiency in the activities of biotin-dependent enzymes (propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE) due to one of two defects in BIOTIN metabolism. The neonatal form is due to HOLOCARBOXYLASE SYNTHETASE DEFICIENCY. The late-onset form is due to BIOTINIDASE DEFICIENCY.

Deficiency, Cytochrome c Oxidase
A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

Deficiency, Cytochrome Oxidase
A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

Deficiency, Cytochrome-c Oxidase
A disease that results from a congenital defect in CYTOCHROME-C OXIDASE. Defects in cytochrome-c oxidase can be caused by mutations in the SURF1, SCO2, COX10, or SCO1 genes. Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency caused by mutation in SURF1 manifests itself as LEIGH DISEASE; that caused by mutation in SCO2 as fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy; that caused by mutation in COX10 as tubulopathy and leukodystrophy; and that caused by mutation in SCO1 as early-onset hepatic failure and neurologic disorder. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#220110, May 17, 2001)

Deficiency, Debrancher
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.

Deficiency, Factor II
Absence or reduced levels of prothrombin in the blood.

Deficiency, Factor IX
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)

Deficiency, Factor VII
An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.

Deficiency, Factor VIII
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.

Deficiency, Factor X
Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.

Deficiency, Factor XII
An absence or reduced level of blood coagulation factor XII. It normally occurs in the absence of patient or family history of hemorrhagic disorders and is marked by prolonged clotting time.

Deficiency, Factor XIII
A deficiency of blood coagulation FACTOR XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor (FSF) that prevents blood clot formation and results in a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.

Deficiency, FALDH
Also known as the Sjogren-Larsson syndrome, this is a genetic (inherited) disease usually characterized by a triad of clinical findings consisting of ichthyosis (thickened fish-like skin), spastic paraplegia (spasticity of the legs) and mental retardation.

Deficiency, Fibrinogen
A deficiency or absence of fibrinogen (coagulation factor I) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Deficiency, Folic Acid
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)

Deficiency, Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

Deficiency, Fructose-1,6-Diphosphatase
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

Deficiency, Fructose-Biphosphatase
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

Deficiency, Fructosediphosphatase
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

Deficiency, GALT
Lack of the enzyme called GALT (galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase) which causes the genetic metabolic disease galactosemia, one of the diseases in many newborn screening panels. The disease can be fatal, if undetected. If detected, it can be treated by avoiding galactose in the diet.

Deficiency, glucocerebrosidase
Causes type 1 Gaucher disease, a progressive genetic disease due to an enzyme defect. The enzyme, glucocerebrosidase, is needed to break down the chemical glucocerebroside. The enzyme defect leads to the progressive accumulation of glucocerebroside in the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes.

Deficiency, Glucose-6-Phosphatase
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Deficiency, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
Deficiency of G6PD is the commonest disease-causing enzyme defect in humans affecting an estimated 400 million people. The G6PD gene is on the X chromosome. Males with the enzyme deficiency develop anemia due to breakup of their red blood cells when they are exposed to oxidant drugs such as the antimalarial primaquine, the sulfonamide antibiotics or sulfones, naphthalene moth balls, or fava beans.

Deficiency, Glucosephosphatase
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Deficiency, Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of enzyme activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.

Deficiency, GPD
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of enzyme activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.

Deficiency, Hexosediphosphatase
An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to absent or deficient fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity. Gluconeogenesis is impaired, resulting in accumulation of gluconeogenic precursors (e.g., amino acids, lactate, ketones) and manifested as hypoglycemia, ketosis, and lactic acidosis. Episodes in the newborn infant are often lethal. Later episodes are often brought on by fasting and febrile infections. As patients age through early childhood, tolerance to fasting improves and development becomes normal.

Deficiency, Holocarboxylase Synthetase
The neonatal form of MULTIPLE CARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY that is caused by a defect or deficiency in holocarboxylase synthetase. HLCS is the enzyme that covalently links biotin to the biotin dependent carboxylases (propionyl-CoA-carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, and beta-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase).

Deficiency, IgA
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.

Deficiency, IgG
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Deficiency, iron
The most common known form of nutritional disorder in the world, iron deficiency results in anemia because iron is necessary to make hemoglobin, key molecule in red blood cells responsible for the transport of oxygen. In iron deficiency anemia, the red cells appear abnormal and are unusually small (microcytic) and pale (hypochromic). The pallor of the red cells reflects their low hemoglobin content.

Deficiency, lactase
Not enough of an enzyme called lactase in the small intestine to digest lactose, a prominent component of milk and most other dairy products. Lactose is sometimes also used as an ingredient in other foods, so anyone with lactase deficiency should check food labels with care.

Deficiency, LCHAD
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) has been found to be associated in some cases with an abnormality of fatty-acid metabolism. This abnormality is a deficiency of the enzyme long-chain-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenease (LCHAD).

Deficiency, Lecithin Acyltransferase
A disease characterized by deficiency or low levels of plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase. Clinical manifestations include corneal opacity, anemia, and proteinuria.

Deficiency, magnesium
Can occur due to inadequate intake or impaired intestinal absorption of magnesium. Low magnesium (hypomagnesemia) is often associated with low calcium (hypocalcemia) and potassium (hypokalemia) levels. Deficiency of magnesium causes increased irritability of the nervous system with tetany (spasms of the hands and feet, muscular twitching and cramps, spasm of the larynx, etc.).

Deficiency, Mental
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual is mentally retarded. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline mentally retarded range. Scores below 67 are in the retarded range. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)

Deficiency, Multiple Carboxylase
A deficiency in the activities of biotin-dependent enzymes (propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE) due to one of two defects in BIOTIN metabolism. The neonatal form is due to HOLOCARBOXYLASE SYNTHETASE DEFICIENCY. The late-onset form is due to BIOTINIDASE DEFICIENCY.

Deficiency, Multiple Carboxylase, Late-Onset
The late onset form of MULTIPLE CARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY (deficiency of the activities of biotin-dependent enzymes propionyl-CoA carboxylase, methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, and PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE) due to a defect or deficiency in biotinidase which is essential for recycling BIOTIN.

Deficiency, Multiple Carboxylase, Neonatal Form
The neonatal form of MULTIPLE CARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY that is caused by a defect or deficiency in holocarboxylase synthetase. HLCS is the enzyme that covalently links biotin to the biotin dependent carboxylases (propionyl-CoA-carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, and beta-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase).

Deficiency, Muscle Phosphofructokinase
An autosomal recessive glycogen storage disease in which there is deficient expression of 6-phosphofructose 1-kinase in muscle (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE) resulting in abnormal deposition of glycogen in muscle tissue. These patients have severe congenital muscular dystrophy and are exercise intolerant.

Deficiency, Muscle Phosphorylase
Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.

Deficiency, Oxidative Phosphorylation
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.

Deficiency, Oxygen
Clinical manifestation of respiratory distress consisting of a relatively complete absence of oxygen.

Deficiency, Platelet Storage Pool
Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.

Deficiency, Potassium
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing polyuria and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary polydipsia. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)

Deficiency, protein C
Protein C is a protein in plasma that enters into the cascade of biochemical events leading to the formation of a clot. Deficiency of protein C results in thrombotic (clotting) disease.

Deficiency, Prothrombin
Absence or reduced levels of prothrombin in the blood.

Deficiency, Pyridoxine
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.

Deficiency, Respiratory Chain
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.

Deficiency, Riboflavin
A dietary deficiency of riboflavin causing a syndrome chiefly marked by cheilitis, angular stomatitis, glossitis associated with a purplish red or magenta-colored tongue that may show fissures, corneal vascularization, dyssebacia, and anemia. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Deficiency, selenium
Lack of the essential mineral selenium, which can cause Keshan disease, a fatal form of cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle) that was first observed in Keshan province in China and has since found elsewhere. Treatment involves ensuring adequate selenium. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is currently 55 micrograms of selenium per day for adult men and women, 60 micrograms per day for women during pregnancy and 70 micrograms per day for women during lactation. Food sources of selenium include seafoods, some meats such as kidney and liver, and some grains and seeds.

Deficiency, Smooth Pursuit
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)

Deficiency, sphingomyelinase
Also called Niemann-Pick disease, this is a disorder of the metabolism of a lipid (fat) called sphingomyelin that usually causes the progressive development of enlargement of the liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), "swollen glands" (lymphadenopathy), anemia and mental and physical deterioration.

Deficiency, Storage Pool
Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.

Deficiency, Stuart Prower
Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.

Deficiency, Stuart Prower Factor
Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.

Deficiency, Stuart-Prower
Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.

Deficiency, Stuart-Prower Factor
Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.

Deficiency, Thiamine
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)

Deficiency, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase
Underactivity of a liver enzyme that is essential to the disposal of bilirubin (the chemical that results from the normal breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells).

Deficiency, Vitamin
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Deficiency, Vitamin A
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)

Deficiency, Vitamin B 12
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)

Deficiency, Vitamin B 6
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.

Deficiency, Vitamin B12
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)

Deficiency, Vitamin B6
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.

Deficiency, Vitamin D
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)

Deficiency, Vitamin E
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)

Deficiency, Vitamin K
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)

Deficiency, Yang
In the yin-yang system of philosophy and medicine, a lack of vital energy (called yangxu in Chinese). It manifests itself in various systemic and organic diseases. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979)

Deficiency, Yin
In the yin-yang system of philosophy and medicine, an insufficiency of body fluid (called yinxu), manifesting often as irritability, thirst, constipation, etc. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979).

Deficiency, zinc
According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Recommended Dietary Allowances of zinc are 12 milligrams per day for women and 10 milligrams per day for men. Food sources of zinc include meat including liver, eggs, seafood, nuts and cereal.

Deficiens Agamous Like Proteins
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN, AGAMOUS PROTEIN, DEFICIENS PROTEIN and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.

Deficiens Agamous Related Proteins
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN, AGAMOUS PROTEIN, DEFICIENS PROTEIN and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.

DEFICIENS Protein
DEFICIENS is a homeotic gene involved in the genetic control of Antirrhinum majus flower development. Its protein is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.

Deficiens-Agamous-Like Proteins
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN, AGAMOUS PROTEIN, DEFICIENS PROTEIN and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.

Deficiens-Agamous-Related Proteins
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN, AGAMOUS PROTEIN, DEFICIENS PROTEIN and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.

Deficit Disorder, Attention
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)

Deficit Disorders, Attention
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)

Deficit, Focal Neurologic
Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.

Deficit, Memory
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.

Deficit, Neurologic
Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.

Deficits, Focal Neurologic
Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.

Deficits, Memory
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.

Deficits, Neurologic
Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.

Definity
Definity is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): perflutren .



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Deficiency Disease, alpha High-Density Lipoprotein
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Deficiency Disease, alpha L Fucosidase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Deficiency Disease, alpha High Density Lipoprotein
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Deficiency Disease, Alpha Aminoadipic Semialdehyde
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Deficiency Disease, alpha Fucosidase
An autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ALPHA-L-FUCOSIDASE activity resulting in an accumulation of fucose containing SPHINGOLIPIDS, GLYCOPROTEINS, and mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in lysosomes. The infantile form (type I) features psychomotor deterioration, MUSCLE SPASTICITY, coarse facial features, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities, visceromegaly, SEIZURES, recurrent infections, and MACROGLOSSIA, with death occurring in the first decade of life. Juvenile fucosidosis (type II) is the more common variant and features a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function and angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. Type II survival may be through the fourth decade of life. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p87; Am J Med Genet 1991 Jan;38(1):111-31)

Deficiency Disease, Acid Maltase

Deficiency Disease, 4-Hydroxyphenol Pyruvic Acid Oxidase
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Deficiency Disease, Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase
A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)

Deficiency Disease, Carbamoylphosphate Synthetase I
A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)

Deficiency Disease, Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase
A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)

Deficiency Disease, Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia)
A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)

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