DOPA
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  Dopa



Dopa

   A precursor (forerunner) of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter (messenger) in the brain. Dopa is used in the treatment of Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is believed to be related to low levels of dopamine in certain parts of the brain. When dopa is taken by mouth, it crosses through the blood-brain barrier. Once it has crossed from the bloodstream into the brain, it is converted to dopamine. The resulting increase in dopamine concentrations in the brain is thought to improve nerve conduction and to assist in lessening the movement disorders in Parkinson disease.

RELATED TERMS
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Dopamine
A neurotransmitter that works in an axis with serotonin.

Neurotransmitter
Specialized chemical messenger (eg, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin) that sends a message from one nerve cell to another. Most neurotransmitters play different roles throughout the body, many of which are not yet known.

Brain
"That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium (skull). The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called ""hemispheres."" "

Dopa
A precursor (forerunner) of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter (messenger) in the brain. Dopa is used in the treatment of Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is believed to be related to low levels of dopamine in certain parts of the brain. When dopa is taken by mouth, it crosses through the blood-brain barrier. Once it has crossed from the bloodstream into the brain, it is converted to dopamine. The resulting increase in dopamine concentrations in the brain is thought to improve nerve conduction and to assist in lessening the movement disorders in Parkinson disease.

Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

Concentrations
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.

Nerve
Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.



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Docosahexaenoic acid
DHA. An essential fatty acid, thought to be important to the development of infants, particularly as regards their eyes and brain. DHA is present in breast milk and has been added to some infant formulas. Postnatal DHA may improve vision and some cognitive functions in infants and toddlers. DHA is an omega-3, polyunsaturated, 22-carbon fatty acid. It is present in abundance in certain fish (such as tuna and bluefish) and marine animal oils.

Dol
A unit of measurement of pain. The term dol was invented by James Hardy and his research colleagues Herbert Wolff and Helen Goodell at Cornell University where from 1950 to 1959, they carried out pioneering experiments on pain. Hasrdy, Wolff and Goodell used precisely calibrated radiant heat directed to the foreheads or hands of trained experimental subjects. They asked the subjects to report each "just noticeable difference" in the intensity of pain they experienced, and graphed their responses on the "dol" scale, in which one dol equals two "just noticeable differences." The graphs showed the effectiveness of different analgesics in relieving the pain, and the physiologic responses with different intensities of pain. From the Latin word for pain, dolor.

Dominant
A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of that gene. (In genetic terms, a dominant trait is one that is phenotypically expressed in heterozygotes). A dominant trait is opposed to a recessive trait which is expressed only when two copies of the gene are present. (In genetic terms, a recessive trait is one that is phenotypically expressed only in homozygotes).

Donor lymphocyte infusion
(DLI) A cancer treatment in which lymphocytes from a bone marrow donor are infused into the person who received the original bone marrow transplant. The goal of donor lymphocyte infusion is to induce a remission of the cancer by a process called the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. Donor lymphocyte infusion is basically meant to boost the GVT effect. The donor lymphocytes, which are T cells, attack and kill residual cancer cells. That is the strategy. Donor lymphocyte infusion has mainly been used to treat relapsed chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Patients with relapsed acute leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), myelodysplasia (MDS), Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma have also been treated by donor leukocyte infusion.

Donor, universal
A person who is type O in the ABO blood group system and can donate blood to all recipients.

Dopa

Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD)
A condition that typically begins in childhood or adolescence with progressive difficulty in walking and, in some cases, spasticity and can be successfully treated with drugs. Segawa dystonia is an important variant of DRD. In Segawa dystonia, the symptoms fluctuate during the day from relative mobility in the morning to increasing disability in the afternoon and evening and after exercise. DRD may not only be rare but also rarely diagnosed since it mimics some forms of cerebral palsy.

Dorian Gray effect
Sudden aging, an abrupt change from seeming youthfulness to the reality and ravages of age, as can occur naturally or when the effects of plastic surgery and Botox treatments wear off.

Dorsum
The back or posterior side of a structure. "Dorsum" is the Latin word for the back. Something pertaining to the dorsum is dorsal. The dorsal surface of the hand is the back of the hand, the side opposite the palm. The dorsal surface of the foot is the back of the foot, the side opposite the sole. The dorsal vertebrae are the thoracic vertebrae; they form part of the back. The dorsal roots of the spinal nerves are the back roots, the posterior roots.

Dose, absorbed
In radiology, the absorbed dose is the amount of energy that is deposited in any material by ionizing radiation. The unit of absorbed dose, the rad, is a measure of energy absorbed per gram of material. An alternative unit of absorbed dose is the gray. One gray equals 100 rads.

Double contrast barium enema
A series of x-rays of the colon and rectum taken after the patient is given an enema, followed by an injection of air. The barium outlines the intestines on the x-rays, allowing many abnormal growths to be visible

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   opa / dpa / doa / dop / ddopa / doopa / doppa / dopaa / eopa / ropa / fopa / vopa / copa / xopa / sopa / wopa / d9pa / d0pa / dppa / dlpa / dkpa / dipa / d8pa / do0a / do-a / do[a / do;a / dola / dooa / do9a / dopq / dopw / dops / dopx / dopz /