DNA, mitochondrial
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  DNA, mitochondrial



DNA, mitochondrial

   Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA of the mitochondrion, a structure situated in the cytoplasm of the cell rather than in the nucleus (where all the other chromosomes are located). All mtDNA is inherited from the mother. There are 2 to 10 copies of the mtDNA genome in each mitochondrion. mtDNA is a double-stranded, circular molecule. It is very small relative to the chromosomes in the nucleus and so contains only a limited number of genes. It is specialized in the information it carries and encodes a number of the subunits in the mitochondrial respiratory-chain complex that the cell needs to respire. (It also contains genes for some ribosomal RNAs and transfer RNAs). Mutations (changes) in mtDNA can cause disease. The mutations often impair the function of oxidative-phosphorylation enzymes in the respiratory chain. This is especially manifest in tissues with a high energy expenditure such as brain and muscle.

RELATED TERMS
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Mitochondrion
Plural: mitochondria. A cellular structure in the cytoplasm that provides energy to the cell. Each cell contains many mitochondria. In humans, a single mitochondrion contains 37 genes on a circular mitochondrial DNA, compared with about 35,000 genes contained in the nuclear DNA.

Cytoplasm
The living matter within a cell (excluding the nucleus) that is responsible for the function of the cell (for example, protein synthesis).

Cell
Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

Nucleus
Plural: nuclei. The compartment of a cell that contains the chromosomes.

Chromosomes
Filaments of genetic material in every cell nucleus that are made up of genes and that transmit genetic information from one generation of cells to the next.

Genome
The complete genetic material of an organism.

Genes
Basic, functional units of heredity, each occupying a specific place on a chromosome.

Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

Enzymes
Proteins that act as a catalysts in mediating and speeding a specific chemical reaction.

Expenditure
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Brain
"That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium (skull). The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called ""hemispheres."" "

Muscle
Tissue made up of bundles of long, slender cells that contract when stimulated.



SIMILAR TERMS
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DNA, Anti-Sense
DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.

DNA, Antisense
DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.

DNA, Archaeal
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.

DNA, Bacterial
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.

DNA, Catalytic
Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.

DNA, Chloroplast
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of chloroplasts.

DNA, coding
A sequence of DNA that codes for protein. Coding DNA sequences are separated by long regions of DNA called introns that have no apparent function. Coding DNA is also known as an exon.

DNA, Complementary
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.

DNA, Double-Stranded
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).

DNA, Fungal
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.

DNA, Helminth
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.

DNA, Heteroduplex
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.

DNA, Kinetoplast
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.

DNA, Left-Handed
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).

DNA, Neoplasm
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.

DNA, Plant
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.

DNA, Protozoan
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.

DNA, Recombinant
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.

DNA, repetitive
DNA sequences that are repeated in the genome. These sequences do not code for protein. One class termed highly repetitive DNA consists of short sequences, 5-100 nucleotides, repeated thousands of times in a single stretch and makes up satellite DNA. Another class termed moderately repetitive DNA consists of longer sequences, about 150-300 nucleotides, dispersed evenly throughout the genome, and includes what are called Alu sequences and transposons.

DNA, Ribosomal
DNA sequences encoding ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as ribosomal spacer DNA (DNA, RIBOSOMAL SPACER).

DNA, Ribosomal Spacer
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).

DNA, satellite
DNA that contains many tandem (not inverted) repeats of a short basic repeating unit. Satellite DNA is located at very specific spots in the genome (on chromosomes 1, 9, 16 and the Y chromosome, the tiny short arms of chromosomes 13-15 and 21 and 22, and near the centromeres of chromosomes).

DNA, Satellite
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.

DNA, Satellite I
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.

DNA, Selfish
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).

DNA, Single Stranded
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.

DNA, Single-Stranded
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.

DNA, Supercoiled
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.

DNA, Superhelical
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.

DNA, Supertwisted
Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.

DNA, Viral
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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DNA sequence, draft
Sequence of a DNA with less accuracy than a finished sequence. In a draft sequence, some segments are missing or are in the wrong order or are oriented incorrectly. A draft sequence is as opposed to a finished DNA sequence.

DNA sequence, finished
A DNA sequence in which the bases are identified to an accuracy of no more than 1 error in 10,000 and are placed in the right order and orientation along a chromosome with almost no gaps. A finished sequence is as opposed to a draft DNA sequence.

DNA technology, recombinant
A series of procedures used to join together (recombine) DNA segments. A recombinant DNA molecule is constructed (recombined) from segments from 2 or more different DNA molecules. Under certain conditions, a recombinant DNA molecule can enter a cell and replicate there, autonomously (on its own) or after it has become integrated into a chromosome.

DNA virus
A virus in which the genetic material is DNA rather than RNA. The DNA may be either double- or single-stranded. Major groups of double-stranded DNA viruses (class I viruses) include the adenoviruses, the herpes viruses, and the poxviruses. Major groups of single-stranded DNA viruses (class II viruses) include the parvoviruses and coliphages.

DNA, coding
A sequence of DNA that codes for protein. Coding DNA sequences are separated by long regions of DNA called introns that have no apparent function. Coding DNA is also known as an exon.

DNA, mitochondrial

DNA, repetitive
DNA sequences that are repeated in the genome. These sequences do not code for protein. One class termed highly repetitive DNA consists of short sequences, 5-100 nucleotides, repeated thousands of times in a single stretch and makes up satellite DNA. Another class termed moderately repetitive DNA consists of longer sequences, about 150-300 nucleotides, dispersed evenly throughout the genome, and includes what are called Alu sequences and transposons.

DNA, satellite
DNA that contains many tandem (not inverted) repeats of a short basic repeating unit. Satellite DNA is located at very specific spots in the genome (on chromosomes 1, 9, 16 and the Y chromosome, the tiny short arms of chromosomes 13-15 and 21 and 22, and near the centromeres of chromosomes).

DNR
Do not resuscitate.

DNS
On a prescription, Do Not Substitute. If a physician orders a particular drug and writes DNS on the prescription, that tells the pharmacist not to substitute a generic version or any other drug for the prescribed drug.

Do not resuscitate order
A request not to have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) done if the heart stops or breathing ceases.

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