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   Type 1 myotonic dystrophy.


Partial atrophy of tissue or an organ as a result of imperfect cell nutrition.



Dizziness, anxiety as a cause of
One cause of dizziness is overbreathing (hyperventilation) due to anxiety. The overbreathing also causes lightheadedness, a sense of unsteadiness and tingling around the mouth and fingertips. Relief can be gotten by breathing in and out of a paper bag (to increase the level of carbon dioxide in the blood).

Dizziness, pre-syncopal
Dizziness before fainting. Some symptoms of dizziness such as wooziness, feeling about to black out, and tunnel vision may be pre-syncopal and are due to insufficient blood flow to the brain. These symptoms are typically worse when standing, improve with lying down and may be experienced by healthy individuals who rise quickly from a chair, often after a meal, and have a few seconds of disorientation.

A gene that inhibits the activity of osteoblasts, the cells that build bone. DKK1 acts by inhibiting Wnt signaling, which is essential for the growth and development of osteoblasts. DKK1 is overexpressed in the plasma cells in multiple myeloma. The DKK1 produced by the myeloma cells tips the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts in favor of bone resorption. This contributes to the maintenance of the lytic ("punched-out") lesions in bone characteristic of multiple myeloma. DKK1 stands for Dickkopf1.

Donor lymphocyte infusion.

Myotonic dystrophy.


Myotonic dystrophy type 2.

DMD (dystonia musculorum deformans)
Also called torsion dystonia, this is a rare, generalized dystonia (a state of abnormal -- either excessive of inadequate -- muscle tone) that can be inherited, usually begins in childhood, and becomes progressively worse. It can leave individuals seriously disabled and confined to a wheelchair.

DNA amplification
The production of multiple copies of a sequence of DNA. Repeated copying of a piece of DNA. DNA amplification plays a role in cancer cells. A tumor cell amplifies, or copies, DNA segments as a result of cell signals and sometimes environmental events. Amplification can occur in vivo (in the living individual) or in vitro (literally "in glass", or in a plastic vessel in the laboratory).

DNA assembly
The process of putting fragments of DNA that have been sequenced into their correct chromosomal positions. The pieces of DNA are assembled to reconstitute the sequence of the chromosome from which they came.

DNA cloning
The use of DNA manipulation procedures to produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA.

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