DKK1 A gene that inhibits the activity of osteoblasts, the cells that build bone. DKK1 acts by inhibiting Wnt signaling, which is essential for the growth and development of osteoblasts. DKK1 is overexpressed in the plasma cells in multiple myeloma. The DKK1 produced by the myeloma cells tips the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts in favor of bone resorption. This contributes to the maintenance of the lytic ("punched-out") lesions in bone characteristic of multiple myeloma. DKK1 stands for Dickkopf1.
1. A unit of DNA that carries information for the biosynthesis of a specific product in the cell. 2. Ultimate unit by which inheritable characteristics are transmitted to succeeding generations in all living organisms. Genes are contained by, and arranged along the length of, the chromosome. The gene is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Each chromosome of each species has a definite number and arrangement of genes, which govern both the structure and metabolic functions of the cells and thus of the entire organism.
Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.
A gene that inhibits the activity of osteoblasts, the cells that build bone. DKK1 acts by inhibiting Wnt signaling, which is essential for the growth and development of osteoblasts. DKK1 is overexpressed in the plasma cells in multiple myeloma. The DKK1 produced by the myeloma cells tips the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts in favor of bone resorption. This contributes to the maintenance of the lytic ("punched-out") lesions in bone characteristic of multiple myeloma. DKK1 stands for Dickkopf1.
1. Something that cannot be done without. 2. Required in the diet, because the body cannot make it. As in an essential amino acid or an essential fatty acid. 3. Idiopathic. As in essential hypertension.
The process of growth and differentiation.
The watery, liquid part of the blood in which the red blood cells, the white blood cells, and platelets are suspended.
A tumour of plasma cells, generally secreting a single species of immunoglobulin.
A biological system that enables us to know where our bodies are in the environment and to maintain a desired position. Normal balance depends on information from the inner ear, other senses (such as sight and touch) and muscle movement.
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An injury incurred from diving into water that is too shallow or has hidden hazards. These injuries may be to the head, neck, or spinal cord. Many diving injuries result when persons --predominantly males aged 15-25 years -- plunge into swimming pools or natural bodies of water such as rivers, streams, lakes, and oceans. In one study, 15 cases of quadriplegia were reported. One resulted from a dive into a swimming pool; the other 14 cases resulted from dives into rivers, streams, lakes, or oceans. Only three of these injured persons had objective evidence of the depth of the water at the time of injury, Most of the divers had underestimated it.
A twins who have shared a common uterine environment with its twin but is due to a different fertilized ovum. Dizygotic twins are also called fraternal twins.
Painless head discomfort with many possible causes including disturbances of vision, the brain, balance (vestibular) system of the inner ear, and gastrointestinal system. Dizziness is a medically indistinct term which laypersons use to describe a variety of conditions ranging from lightheadedness, unsteadiness to vertigo.
Dizziness, anxiety as a cause of
One cause of dizziness is overbreathing (hyperventilation) due to anxiety. The overbreathing also causes lightheadedness, a sense of unsteadiness and tingling around the mouth and fingertips. Relief can be gotten by breathing in and out of a paper bag (to increase the level of carbon dioxide in the blood).
Dizziness before fainting. Some symptoms of dizziness such as wooziness, feeling about to black out, and tunnel vision may be pre-syncopal and are due to insufficient blood flow to the brain. These symptoms are typically worse when standing, improve with lying down and may be experienced by healthy individuals who rise quickly from a chair, often after a meal, and have a few seconds of disorientation.
Donor lymphocyte infusion.
Type 1 myotonic dystrophy.
Myotonic dystrophy type 2.
DMD (dystonia musculorum deformans)
Also called torsion dystonia, this is a rare, generalized dystonia (a state of abnormal -- either excessive of inadequate -- muscle tone) that can be inherited, usually begins in childhood, and becomes progressively worse. It can leave individuals seriously disabled and confined to a wheelchair.
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