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    Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. A means of measuring bone density to detect osteoporosis.


Electromagnetic energy used to produce images of bones and internal organs onto film.

Radiological technique for measuring bone density. e.g. dual photon densitometry - DXA.

Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.

The amount of darkness or light in an area of a scan reflects the compactness and density of tissue. Differences in tissue density are the basis for CT and MR scans.

Break-down or disintegration of bone, resulting in diminished and porous bone mass. Osteoporosis can result from cancer (including breast cancer) that has spread to the bones), some cancer therapies, and estrogen deficiency (estrogen is an important participant in maintaining bone). Osteoporosis can cause pain, deformity (especially of the spine), pathologic fractures (fractures caused by weakened bone), or traumatic fractures (for example, wrist or hip fracture from a fall).



Space between teeth.

Health (dental) maintenance organization which specifies a health care (dental) provider a patient may see. Profitability depends on minimization of treatment.

Dysphoria is the lack of ability to feel enjoyment at any activity, an emotional state characterized by malaise, anxiety, depression or unease. The opposite of dysphoria would be euphoria.

Inflammation of a whole digit. Due to tenosynovitis and often periostitis as well as arthritis. Seen in seronegative arthritis (typically psoriatic arthritis) and sarcoidosis.

A connective tissue disorder in which a rash and muscle inflammation are the predominant features.


Diaphyseal aclasis
A syndrome in which there are multiple enchondromata.

Diastrophic dwarfism
Short stature, cleft palate, thick pinnae and other features. Autosomal recessive inheritance.

Disc prolapse
Condition in which an intervertebral disc is damaged and some of it protrudes. May cause sciatica if it does so in the vicinity of a major nerve in the spine.

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis. Florid new bone formation at entheses results in spinal stiffness. May be confused with ankylosing spondylitis. (Forestier's disease, Ankylosing hyperostosis)

Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drug.

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