DEMENTIA
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  Dementia



Dementia

    The loss, usually progressive, of cognitive and intellectual functions, without impairment of perception or consciousness; caused by a variety of disorders, most commonly structural brain disease. Characterized by disorientation, impaired memory, impaired judgment and lowered intellect.

RELATED TERMS
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Cognitive
The mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.

Impairment
A defect in organ function or whole body system, which may be temporary or permanent (eg. hemiplegia).

Consciousness
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.

Brain
"That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium (skull). The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called ""hemispheres."" "

Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

Disorientation
Confusion about the time of day, date, or season (time), where one is (place), or who one is (person).

Memory
In the immune system, memory denotes an active state of immunity to a specific antigen, such that a second encounter with that antigen leads to a larger and more rapid response.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Demeclocycline
An antibiotic related to tetracycline and produced by Streptomyces aureofaciens. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.

Demeclocycline hcl
Demeclocycline hcl is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): demeclocycline hydrochloride.

Demeclocycline Hydrochloride
An antibiotic related to tetracycline and produced by Streptomyces aureofaciens. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.

Demeclocycline Monohydrochloride
An antibiotic related to tetracycline and produced by Streptomyces aureofaciens. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.

Demeclocycline, 4 epimer
An antibiotic related to tetracycline and produced by Streptomyces aureofaciens. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.

Demeclocycline, 4-epimer
An antibiotic related to tetracycline and produced by Streptomyces aureofaciens. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.

Demeclocycline, Calcium (1:1) Salt
An antibiotic related to tetracycline and produced by Streptomyces aureofaciens. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.

Demeclocycline, Calcium (1:2) Salt
An antibiotic related to tetracycline and produced by Streptomyces aureofaciens. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.

Demecolcine
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.

Demecolcine, (+-)-Isomer
An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.

Dementia Complex, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNONDEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefication, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)

Dementia Complex, AIDS
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNONDEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefication, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)

Dementia Complex, AIDS Related
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNONDEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefication, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)

Dementia Complex, AIDS-Related
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNONDEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefication, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)

Dementia Praecox
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, hallucinations, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.

Dementia With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)

Dementia, Alzheimer Type
A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgement, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)

Dementia, Arteriosclerotic
An imprecise term refering to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)

Dementia, Familial
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.

Dementia, HIV
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNONDEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefication, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)

Dementia, Lacunar
Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgement, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY, hemiparesis, reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)

Dementia, Lewy Body
A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)

Dementia, Multi Infarct
Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgement, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY, hemiparesis, reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)

Dementia, Multi-Infarct
Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgement, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY, hemiparesis, reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)

Dementia, Multiinfarct
Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgement, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY, hemiparesis, reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)

Dementia, Presenile
A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgement, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)

Dementia, Presenile Alzheimer
A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgement, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)

Dementia, Primary Senile Degenerative
A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgement, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)

Dementia, Semantic
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.

Dementia, Senile
A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgement, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)

Dementia, Subcortical Vascular
An imprecise term refering to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)

Dementia, Transmissible
A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA, ataxia, and a fatal outcome. Diseases in this category include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER-SCHEINKER SYNDROME; KURU; SCRAPIE; fatal familial insomnia; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (see ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM); transmissible mink encephalopathy; and chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)

Dementia, Vascular
An imprecise term refering to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)

Dementias
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.

Dementias, Arteriosclerotic
An imprecise term refering to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)

Dementias, Familial
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.

Dementias, HIV
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNONDEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefication, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)

Dementias, Lacunar
Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgement, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY, hemiparesis, reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)

Dementias, Multi-Infarct
Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgement, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY, hemiparesis, reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)

Dementias, Multiinfarct
Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgement, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY, hemiparesis, reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)

Dementias, Presenile
A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgement, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)

Dementias, Semantic
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.

Dementias, Senile
A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgement, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)

Dementias, Senile Paranoid
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.

Dementias, Subcortical Vascular
An imprecise term refering to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)

Dementias, Transmissible
A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA, ataxia, and a fatal outcome. Diseases in this category include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER-SCHEINKER SYNDROME; KURU; SCRAPIE; fatal familial insomnia; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (see ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM); transmissible mink encephalopathy; and chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)

Dementias, Vascular
An imprecise term refering to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)

Demerol
Demerol is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): meperidine hydrochloride.

Demethyl Epipodophyllotoxin Ethylidine Glucoside
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.

Demethyl Epipodophyllotoxin Thenylidine Glucoside
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Teniposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent cells from entering into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, and lead to cell death. Teniposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cycle.

Demethylase, Caffeine
A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome which is of significant clinical interest due to the large number of drug interactions associated with induction and inhibition of theophylline. Caffeine is considered to be a model substrate for this enzyme. It also metabolizes theophylline and antipyrene. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking, charbroiled meat, cruciferous vegetables, and a number of drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and omeprazole produce increases in CYP1A2 activity. (Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:619-24) EC 1.-.

Demethylase, Ethylmorphine N
A drug-metabolizing enzyme of the hepatic microsomal oxidase system which catalyzes the oxidation of the N-methyl group of ethylmorphine with the formation of formaldehyde.

Demethylase, N-Nitrosodimethylamine
A polymorphic enzyme that activates carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, benzene, urethane, and other low molecular weight compounds. It is inducible by ethanol and metabilizes alcohol. Experimentally, it is used to study the effects of ethanol usage and withdrawal via enzyme markers such as N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. (Pharmacogenetics 1995;5 Spec No:S141-4) EC 1.5.99.-.

Demethylase, Nitroanisole O
Oxidative enzyme which transforms p-nitroanisole into p-nitrophenol.

Demethylating Oxidoreductases, O
Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.

Demethylchlortetracycline
An antibiotic related to tetracycline and produced by Streptomyces aureofaciens. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.

Demethyldaunomycin
A very toxic anthracycline-type antibiotic related to DAUNORUBICIN, obtained from Actinomadura carminata. It is used in soft tissue neoplasms and leukemias.

Demethyldaunorubicin
A very toxic anthracycline-type antibiotic related to DAUNORUBICIN, obtained from Actinomadura carminata. It is used in soft tissue neoplasms and leukemias.

Demethyldiazepam
An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.

Demethylimipramine
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholingeric activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.

Demeton
An organothiophosphate insecticide.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Dyslexia
A brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia have difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds) and/or rapid visual-verbal responding.

Dystonia
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder with involuntary muscle contractions, forcing specific parts of the body into abnormal movements or positions, sometimes causing pain.

Dental phobia
Dental phobia is a fear, or phobia, traditionally defined as an irrational and exaggerated fear of dentists and dental procedures.

Di George Syndrom
A genetic disease caused by a missing piece of chromosome material on chromosome 22 that results in many different health problems, and affects the normal fetal development of the heart, thymus, and parathyroid glands.

Doxycycline
A tetracycline derivative; an antibiotic that inhibits many of the microorganisms infecting the reproductive tract. Often used for treating ureaplasma infections. Many physicians find routine treatment with this antibiotic more cost-effective than performing multiple cultures on both the husband and wife looking for infection.

Dementia

Degenerative Disc Disease
The disc material that sits between the bones of the spinal column act like shock absorbers. Over time this fibrous gelatinous matter loses the ability to absorb water and is called degenerative. Having a degenerative disc can cause pain usually in the neck or lower back depending on where in the spine the disc is located. If surgical treatment is considered, surgery includes removal of the degenerated disc and placement of metal instrumentation to fuse the bones together to avoid instability. Surgical options also include less invasive percutaneous (through the skin) needle procedures.

Down Syndrome
A genetic disorder (caused by the presence of an extra chromosome), which results in physical and mental abnormalities. Physical characteristics include a flattened face, widely spaced and slanted eyes, smaller head size and lax joints. Mental retardation is also typical, though there are wide variations in mental ability, behavior, and developmental progress. Possible related health problems include poor resistance to infection, hearing loss, gastrointestinal problems, and heart defects.

Diet pill
Anorectics, anorexigenics or appetite suppressants, are substances which reduce the desire to eat ("anorectic", from the Greek an- = "not" and oreg- = "extend, reach").

Drug rehabilitation
Drug rehabilitation is an umbrella term for a variety of processes by which a person addicted to a drug stops using that drug. These processes can vary from cold turkey to the use of substitute drugs which do not have the same action upon the state of consciousness as the original drug to which the person was addicted.

Diet
In nutrition, the diet is the sum of the food consumed by a body. Proper nutrition for a human requires vitamins, minerals, proteins, and fuel in the form of carbohydrates and fats. Imbalances between the consumed fuels and expended energy results in either starvation or excessive reserves of adipose tissue, or body fat

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