Cyst, Thoracic
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  Cyst, Thoracic



Cyst, Thoracic

   Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

RELATED TERMS
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Cysts
Any closed cavity or sac, normal or abnormal, lined by epithelium, and especially one that contains a liquid or semisolid material. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Mediastinum
The tissues and organs located directly behind the sternum between the lungs. Contains the heart and its large vessels, the esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes and other structures and tissues.

Superior
The anatomical term for "above". i.e. the head is superior to the shoulder. Typically used in humans only. See Cranial/Caudal/Inferior.

Trachea
The trachea is a tube which extends from the larynx to the esophagus. It is connected to the trachea at about the area where the larynx is located. It functions as a tube for air to pass through from the external environment to the lungs. It is composed of C-shaped cartilage rings which are embedded in the smooth muscle. The cartilage prevents the trachea from collapsing and closing off the airway.

Esophagus
The organ that connects the mouth to the stomach. Also called gullet.

Thoracic
Pertaining to or affecting the chest.

Duct
A channel or passage through which fluids move.

Thymus
The gland responsible for the production of certain white cells known as T-lymphocytes that are important for immune function. The thymus is very sensitive to excess cortisol.

Inferior
The anatomical term for "below". i.e. the neck is inferior to the head. Typically used in humans only. See Cranial/Caudal/Superior.

Pericardium
The membrane that surrounds the heart.

Anterior
The front, as opposed to the posterior. The anterior surface of the heart is toward the breast bone (the sternum).

Lymph
Consists primarily of a clear, yellowish fluid and white blood cells. Found in the lymphatic system.

Posterior
At or toward the back.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Cyst
A soft or hard tissue sac, hard or filled with fluid

Cyst Fluid
Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.

Cyst Fluids
Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.

Cyst of the ovary, follicular
A fluid-filled sac in the ovary, the most common type of ovarian cyst. It results from the growth of a follicle. A follicle is the fluid-filled cyst that contains an egg. In some cycles, this follicle grows larger that normal and does not rupture to release the egg. Normally it resolves with simple observation over the course of days to months.

Cyst, Aneurysmal Bone
Solitary lesions of bone that typically cause a bulging of the overlying cortex bearing some resemblance to the saccular protrusion of the aortic wall in aortic aneurysm, hence the name. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cyst, Apical Periodontal
Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.

Cyst, Arachnoid
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. Spinal arachnoid cysts may be extradural, intradural, or perineural and tend to present with signs and symptoms indicative of a RADICULOPATHY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)

Cyst, Baker
A swelling in the space behind the knee (the popliteal space) composed of a membrane-lined sac filled with synovial fluid that has escaped from the joint.

Cyst, Bone
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.

Cyst, Branchial
A tumor derived from branchial epithelium or branchial rests. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cyst, Branchial Cleft
A tumor derived from branchial epithelium or branchial rests. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cyst, Breast
A chronic disorder comprising three variants which range from lesions consisting primarily of an overgrowth of fibrous tissue to those characterized by dominance of the proliferation of the epithelial parenchyma to a form of dysplasia characterized by both stromal and epithelial hyperplasia with the formation of cysts.

Cyst, Bronchial
A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.

Cyst, Bronchogenic
A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.

Cyst, Calcifying Odontogenic
A mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion of the jaws with features of both a cyst and a solid neoplasm. It is characterized microscopically by an epithelial lining showing a palisaded layer of columnar basal cells, presence of ghost cell keratinization, dentinoid, and calcification. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cyst, Choledochal
A congenital cystic dilatation of the common bile duct; this condition may be asymptomatic, or cause vomiting, fever, jaundice, or pain in the right upper quadrant.

Cyst, Common Bile Duct
A congenital cystic dilatation of the common bile duct; this condition may be asymptomatic, or cause vomiting, fever, jaundice, or pain in the right upper quadrant.

Cyst, Corpus Luteum
General term for cysts and cystic diseases of the ovary.

Cyst, Dental Root
An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.

Cyst, Dentigerous
Most common follicular odontogenic cyst. Occurs in relation to a partially erupted or unerupted tooth with at least the crown of the tooth to which the cyst is attached protruding into the cystic cavity. May give rise to an ameloblastoma and, in rare instances, undergo malignant transformation.

Cyst, Dentoalveolar
An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.

Cyst, Dermoid
A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cyst, Epidermal
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Cyst, Epidermoid
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Cyst, Follicular
Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.

Cyst, Hepatic Hydatid
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Cyst, Hydatid
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.

Cyst, Intracranial Arachnoid
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. Spinal arachnoid cysts may be extradural, intradural, or perineural and tend to present with signs and symptoms indicative of a RADICULOPATHY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)

Cyst, Jaw
Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.

Cyst, Lateral
An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.

Cyst, Leptomeningeal
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. Spinal arachnoid cysts may be extradural, intradural, or perineural and tend to present with signs and symptoms indicative of a RADICULOPATHY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)

Cyst, Lymphatic
Cystic mass containing lymph from diseased lymphatic channels or following surgical trauma or other injury.

Cyst, Mediastinal
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

Cyst, Meibomian
A non-neoplastic cyst of the MEIBOMIAN GLANDS of the eyelid.

Cyst, Mesenteric
A congenital thin-walled cyst of the abdomen between the leaves of the mesentery, which may be of wolffian or lymphatic duct origin. As it enlarges it may cause colicky pain and intestinal obstruction. (Dorlamd, 27th ed)

Cyst, Myxoid
A nodular, tumorlike lesion in or about a tendon sheath or joint capsule, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. It is not a true cyst as it lacks an epithelial wall, and it does not communicate with the underlying synovial space. The lesion represents a focal accumulation of mucin in the dermis of the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanges or, less often, other portions of the extremities.

Cyst, Neurenteric
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)

Cyst, Neuroenteric
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)

Cyst, Nonodontogenic
Cysts formed from epithelial inclusions in the lines of fusion of the embryonic processes which form the jaws. They include nasopalatine or incisive canal cyst, incisive papilla cyst, globulomaxillary cyst, median palatal cyst, median alveolar cyst, median mandibular cyst, and nasoalveolar cyst.

Cyst, Odontogenic
Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.

Cyst, ovarian
A fluid-filled sac in the ovary. The most common type of ovarian cyst is called a follicular cyst. It results from the growth of a follicle. A follicle is the fluid-filled cyst that contains an egg. In some cycles, this follicle grows larger that normal and does not rupture to release the egg. Normally it resolves with simple observation over the course of days to months. Other types of ovarian cysts can contain blood (hemorrhagic or endometriod cysts).

Cyst, Ovarian
General term for cysts and cystic diseases of the ovary.

Cyst, Pancreatic
A true cyst of the pancreas to be distinguished from the much more common PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST by possessing a mucous epithelial lining. Pancreatic cysts are categorized as congenital, retention, neoplastic, parasitic, enterogenous, or dermoid. Congenital cysts occur more frequently as solitary cysts but may be multiple. Retention cysts are gross enlargements of pancreatic ducts secondary to ductal obstruction. (From Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p4145)

Cyst, Parovarian
A cyst of the epoophoron or parovarium, a vestigial structure associated with the ovary, consisting of a more cranial group of mesonephric tubules and a corresponding portion of the mesonephric duct. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Cyst, Periapical
Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.

Cyst, Pericardial
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

Cyst, Perineural
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. Spinal arachnoid cysts may be extradural, intradural, or perineural and tend to present with signs and symptoms indicative of a RADICULOPATHY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)

Cyst, Periodontal
An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.

Cyst, Pilar
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Cyst, pilonidal
A special kind of abscess that occurs in the cleft between the buttocks. Forms frequently in adolescence after long trips that involve sitting.

Cyst, Pilonidal
A hair-containing cyst or sinus, occurring chiefly in the coccygeal region.

Cyst, Popliteal
A synovial cyst in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.

Cyst, Pulmonary Hydatid
Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Cyst, Radicular
Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.

Cyst, sebaceous
A sebaceous cyst is a rounded swollen area of the skin formed by an abnormal sac of retained excretion (sebum) from the sebaceous follicles.

Cyst, Sebaceous
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Cyst, Solitary
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.

Cyst, Subchondral
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.

Cyst, Suprasellar
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.

Cyst, Synovial
A nodular, tumorlike lesion in or about a tendon sheath or joint capsule, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. It is not a true cyst as it lacks an epithelial wall, and it does not communicate with the underlying synovial space. The lesion represents a focal accumulation of mucin in the dermis of the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanges or, less often, other portions of the extremities.

Cyst, tarsal
Also called a chalazion or a Meibomian cyst, an inflammation of the oil gland of the eyelid.

Cyst, Thymic
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

Cyst, Thyroglossal
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cyst, Thyroglossal Duct
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cyst, Thyrolingual
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cyst, Tracheal
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

Cyst, Umbilical
Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.

Cyst, Urachal
Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.

Cystadane
Cystadane is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): betaine, anhydrous.

Cystadenocarcinoma
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous
A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)

Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary
An adenocarcinoma in which the tumor elements are arranged as finger-like processes or as a solid spherical nodule projecting from an epithelial surface.

Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)

Cystadenocarcinomas
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cystadenocarcinomas, Mucinous
A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)

Cystadenocarcinomas, Papillary
An adenocarcinoma in which the tumor elements are arranged as finger-like processes or as a solid spherical nodule projecting from an epithelial surface.

Cystadenocarcinomas, Serous
A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)

Cystadenoma
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cystadenoma Lymphomatosum, Papillary
A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.

Cystadenoma, Mucinous
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.

Cystadenoma, Papillary
A benign neoplasm of the ovary.

Cystadenoma, Serous
A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)

Cystadenomas
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cystadenomas, Mucinous
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.

Cystadenomas, Papillary
A benign neoplasm of the ovary.

Cystadenomas, Serous
A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)

Cystafos
Proposed as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy; may have radiation protective properties.

Cystagon
Cystagon is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): cysteamine bitartrate.

Cystamine
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystamine Calcium Salt
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystamine Diacetate
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystamine Dihydrobromide
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystamine Dihydrochloride
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystamine Hydrobromide
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystamine Hydrochloride
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystamine Sulfate
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystamine Sulfate (1:1)
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystaphos
Proposed as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy; may have radiation protective properties.

Cystathionase
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.

Cystathionine beta Synthase
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.

Cystathionine beta Synthase Deficiency Disease
An autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall, slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varis, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)

Cystathionine beta-Synthase
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.

Cystathionine beta-Synthase Deficiency Disease
An autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall, slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varis, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)

Cystathionine gamma Lyase
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.

Cystathionine gamma-Lyase
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.

Cystathionine Synthetase
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.

Cystatin A
A homologous group of endogenous cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Four distinct families are recognized within the cystatin superfamily: cystatin B or stefins; cystatin C or post-gamma-globulin; egg-white or chicken cystatin; and kininogen cystatin. The cystatins inhibit most Cysteine Endopeptidases of the papain type, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.

Cystatin C
A serum protein that is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and that serves as a measure of kidney function. Cystatin C is produced steadily by all types of nucleated cells in the body. Its low molecular mass allows it to be freely filtered by the glomerular membrane in the kidney. Its concentration in blood correlates with the glomerular filtration rate. The levels of cystatin C are independent of weight and height, muscle mass, age (over a year of age), and sex. Measurements can be made and interpreted from a single random sample. Cystatin C is a better marker of the glomerular filtration rate and hence of kidney function than creatinine which was the most commonly used measure of kidney function.

Cystatin Superfamily
A homologous group of endogenous cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Four distinct families are recognized within the cystatin superfamily: cystatin B or stefins; cystatin C or post-gamma-globulin; egg-white or chicken cystatin; and kininogen cystatin. The cystatins inhibit most Cysteine Endopeptidases of the papain type, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.

Cystatins
A homologous group of endogenous cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Four distinct families are recognized within the cystatin superfamily: cystatin B or stefins; cystatin C or post-gamma-globulin; egg-white or chicken cystatin; and kininogen cystatin. The cystatins inhibit most Cysteine Endopeptidases of the papain type, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.

Cystatins, Kininogen
Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.

Cysteamine
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteamine Bitartrate
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteamine Dihydrochloride
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteamine Hydrobromide
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteamine Hydrochloride
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteamine Maleate (1:1)
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteamine Tartrate
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteamine Tartrate (1:1)
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteamine Tosylate
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteamine, 35S Labeled
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteamine, 35S-Labeled
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cystectomies
Used for excision of the urinary bladder.

Cystectomy
Surgery to remove the bladder. Cystic fibrosis: A common genetic disease inherited as a recessive condition. Thick mucus can clog the lung passages and block the ducts of the pancreas in cystic fibrosis.

Cysteinamine
A radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form CYSTAMINE. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate has been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis.

Cysteinamine Disulfide
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cysteine
An amino acid, one of the 20 building blocks of protein. Cysteine can be synthesized by the body and is not essential to the diet. Its key chemical feature is a thiol group that contains sulfur. This thiol group can combine with the thiol group of another cysteine to form a disulfide bridge, which helps structural proteins and enzymes maintain their configuration. Two cysteine molecules linked by a disulfide bridge make up the amino acid cystine. The symbol for cysteine is Cys.

Cysteine Desulfhydrase
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.

Cysteine Endopeptidases
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 3.4.22.

Cysteine hcl
Cysteine hcl is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): cysteine hydrochloride.

Cysteine Hydrochloride
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.

Cysteine Protease
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 3.4.22.

Cysteine Protease Inhibitors
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.

Cysteine Proteases
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 3.4.22.

Cysteine Proteinase
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 3.4.22.

Cysteine Proteinase Antagonists
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.

Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.

Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors, Endogenous
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.

Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors, Exogenous
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.

Cysteine Proteinases
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 3.4.22.

Cysteine Specific tRNA
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying cysteine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.

Cysteine Synthase
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. EC 4.2.99.8.

Cysteine Synthase A
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. EC 4.2.99.8.

Cysteine-Specific tRNA
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying cysteine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.

Cysteinyldopa
Found in large amounts in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma. It is therefore used in the diagnosis of melanoma and for the detection of postoperative metastases. Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing cells.

Cystic acne
"This is a type of localized infection (abscess) formed when oil ducts become clogged and infected. Cystic acne is most common in the teenage years. Treatment includes avoiding irritants on the face, including many cleansers and makeups; and in some severe cases steroid, antibiotic or other medications. Cystic acne can cause permanent scarring in severe cases and in those who are prone to forming keloids."

Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung
A developmental anomaly that usually becomes apparent in the neonatal period with progressive respiratory distress. This malformation is a focal pulmonary dysplasia characterized by a multicystic mass of terminal bronchiolar structures. CCAM is classified into 3 separate types (I, II, III) depending on cyst size.

Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital
A developmental anomaly that usually becomes apparent in the neonatal period with progressive respiratory distress. This malformation is a focal pulmonary dysplasia characterized by a multicystic mass of terminal bronchiolar structures. CCAM is classified into 3 separate types (I, II, III) depending on cyst size.

Cystic Carcinoma, Adenoid
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cystic Carcinomas, Adenoid
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cystic Disease of Breast
A chronic disorder comprising three variants which range from lesions consisting primarily of an overgrowth of fibrous tissue to those characterized by dominance of the proliferation of the epithelial parenchyma to a form of dysplasia characterized by both stromal and epithelial hyperplasia with the formation of cysts.

Cystic duct
The tube that carries bile from the gallbladder into the common bile duct and the small intestine.

Cystic duct obstruction
A blockage of the cystic duct, often caused by gallstones.

Cystic fibrosis
A disease that most commonly affects the lungs and digestive system, especially the pancreas. It causes the exocrine glands, which produce mucus and sweat, to produce abnormal secretions. CF causes the cells in the lung tissue to produce an abnormal amount of thick, sticky mucus that clogs the airways of the lungs, resulting in pulmonary obstructions and life-threatening bacterial infections.

Cystic Fibrosis
An inherited disease of exocrine glands, affecting most characteristically the pancreas, respiratory system, and sweat glands, usually beginning in infancy and typified by chronic respiratory infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and susceptibility to heat prostration. Cirrhosis of liver occurring in childhood is common and may produce portal hypertension, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism.

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)

Cystic Fibrosis, Pancreatic
An inherited disease of exocrine glands, affecting most characteristically the pancreas, respiratory system, and sweat glands, usually beginning in infancy and typified by chronic respiratory infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and susceptibility to heat prostration. Cirrhosis of liver occurring in childhood is common and may produce portal hypertension, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism.

Cystic Hygroma
A cystic growth originating from lymphatic tissue. It is usually found in the neck, axilla, or groin.

Cystic Hygromas
A cystic growth originating from lymphatic tissue. It is usually found in the neck, axilla, or groin.

Cystic Kidney
A kidney containing one or more cysts, including polycystic disease (KIDNEY, POLYCYSTIC), solitary cyst, multiple simple cysts, and retention cysts (associated with parenchymal scarring). (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cystic Kidneys
A kidney containing one or more cysts, including polycystic disease (KIDNEY, POLYCYSTIC), solitary cyst, multiple simple cysts, and retention cysts (associated with parenchymal scarring). (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cystic Lymphangioma
A cystic growth originating from lymphatic tissue. It is usually found in the neck, axilla, or groin.

Cystic Lymphangiomas
A cystic growth originating from lymphatic tissue. It is usually found in the neck, axilla, or groin.

Cystic Mastitides
A chronic disorder comprising three variants which range from lesions consisting primarily of an overgrowth of fibrous tissue to those characterized by dominance of the proliferation of the epithelial parenchyma to a form of dysplasia characterized by both stromal and epithelial hyperplasia with the formation of cysts.

Cystic Mastitis
A chronic disorder comprising three variants which range from lesions consisting primarily of an overgrowth of fibrous tissue to those characterized by dominance of the proliferation of the epithelial parenchyma to a form of dysplasia characterized by both stromal and epithelial hyperplasia with the formation of cysts.

Cystic Mesothelioma
A peritoneal mesothelioma affecting mainly young females and producing cysts of variable size and number lined by a single layer of benign mesothelial cells. The disease follows a benign course and is compatible with a normal life expectancy, requiring occasionally partial excision or decompression for relief of pain or other symptoms. Malignant potential is exceptional. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1345)

Cystic Mesotheliomas
A peritoneal mesothelioma affecting mainly young females and producing cysts of variable size and number lined by a single layer of benign mesothelial cells. The disease follows a benign course and is compatible with a normal life expectancy, requiring occasionally partial excision or decompression for relief of pain or other symptoms. Malignant potential is exceptional. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1345)

Cystic periventricular leukomalacia
Softening of the white matter near the ventricles of the brain resulting in abnormal cysts. Cystic periventricular leukomalacia is a major problem in very premature infants.

Cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and COGNITIVE DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)

Cystic Periventricular Leukomalacias
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and COGNITIVE DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)

Cystic Teratoma
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They may be solid or cystic and are classified histologically as mature, immature, and malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed & DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)

Cystic Teratomas
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They may be solid or cystic and are classified histologically as mature, immature, and malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed & DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)

Cysticercoses
Infection with CYSTICERCUS, a larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Cysticercosis
An infection caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Infection occurs when the tapeworm larvae enter the body and form cysticerci (cysts). When cysticerci are found in the brain, the condition is called neurocysticercosis.

Cysticercosis, Brain
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)

Cysticercosis, Central Nervous System
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)

Cysticercus
The larval form of any of the Taenia tapeworms. The plural is cysticerci. Infection with cysticerci is referred to as cysticercosis.

Cystidyl Aminopeptidase
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.

Cystinamin
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystinaminopeptidase
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.

Cystine
An amino acid that is particularly notable because it is the least soluble of all of the naturally occurring amino acids and because it precipitates out of solution in the genetic disease cystinuria to form stones in the urinary tract. Cystine is the chief sulfur-containing compound in protein. Cystine is generated by the union of two cysteine molecules and so is sometimes called dicysteine. It is abbreviated Cys-Cys.

Cystine Aminopeptidase
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.

Cystine Arylamidase
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.

Cystine Desulfhydrase
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.

Cystine Desulfohydrolase
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.

Cystine kidney stones
Cystine kidney stones are due to cystinuria, an inherited (genetic) disorder of the transport of an amino acid (a building block of protein) called cystine that results in an excess of cystine in the urine (cystinuria) and the formation of cystine stones.

Cystine transport disease
Commonly known as cystinuria, this is an inherited (genetic) disorder of the transport of an amino acid (a building block of protein) called cystine resulting in an excess of cystine in the urine (cystinuria) and the formation of cystine stones.

Cystineamine
A radiation-protective agent that interferes with sulfhydryl enzymes. It may also protect against carbon tetrachloride liver damage.

Cystinoses
Lysosomal storage disorders of unknown molecular defect, characterized by widespread deposition of cystine crystals in reticuloendothelial cells. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Cystinosis
A genetic disease characterized by the widespread deposition of the amino acid cystine in cells due to a defect in cystine transport. (Cystine normally forms after protein degradation and is transported from structures called lysosomes into the cytoplasm. In cystinosis, cystine accumulates in the lysoosmes and eventually forms crystals throughout the body. Cystinosis is therefore a lysosomal storage disease.)

Cystinuria
An inherited (genetic) disorder of the transport of an amino acid (a building block of protein) called cystine resulting in an excess of cystine in the urine (cystinuria) and the formation of cystine stones.

Cystinurias
An inherited abnormality of renal tubular transport of dibasic amino acids leading to massive urinary excretion of cystine, lysine, arginine, and ornithine.

Cystinyl Aminopeptidase
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.

Cystitides
Inflammation of the urinary bladder. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cystitides, Chronic Interstitial
A condition of the bladder occurring predominantly in women, with an inflammatory lesion, usually in the vertex, and involving the entire thickness of the wall, appearing as a small patch of brownish red mucosa, surrounded by a network of radiating vessels. The lesions, known as Fenwick-Hunner or Hunner ulcers, may heal superficially, and are notoriously difficult to detect. Typically, there is urinary frequency and pain on bladder filling and at the end of micturition. It is also called chronic interstitial cystitis. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cystitides, Interstitial
A condition of the bladder occurring predominantly in women, with an inflammatory lesion, usually in the vertex, and involving the entire thickness of the wall, appearing as a small patch of brownish red mucosa, surrounded by a network of radiating vessels. The lesions, known as Fenwick-Hunner or Hunner ulcers, may heal superficially, and are notoriously difficult to detect. Typically, there is urinary frequency and pain on bladder filling and at the end of micturition. It is also called chronic interstitial cystitis. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cystitis
Bladder infection. Cystitis is considered as benign if it is not associated with an upper urinary tract infection or pyelonephritis, although it is often painful and uncomfortable (burning sensation when urinating). Cystitis may recur and this must be taken into account, particularly in the event of pregnancy, when urinary stasis is common.

Cystitis in children
Bladder infection in children.

Cystitis, Chronic Interstitial
A condition of the bladder occurring predominantly in women, with an inflammatory lesion, usually in the vertex, and involving the entire thickness of the wall, appearing as a small patch of brownish red mucosa, surrounded by a network of radiating vessels. The lesions, known as Fenwick-Hunner or Hunner ulcers, may heal superficially, and are notoriously difficult to detect. Typically, there is urinary frequency and pain on bladder filling and at the end of micturition. It is also called chronic interstitial cystitis. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cystitis, Interstitial
A condition of the bladder occurring predominantly in women, with an inflammatory lesion, usually in the vertex, and involving the entire thickness of the wall, appearing as a small patch of brownish red mucosa, surrounded by a network of radiating vessels. The lesions, known as Fenwick-Hunner or Hunner ulcers, may heal superficially, and are notoriously difficult to detect. Typically, there is urinary frequency and pain on bladder filling and at the end of micturition. It is also called chronic interstitial cystitis. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cystitis, interstitial (IC)
Disease that involves inflammation or irritation of the bladder wall. This inflammation can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, and even ulcerations and bleeding. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, findings on cystoscopy and biopsy, and eliminating other treatable causes such as infection. Because doctors do not know what causes IC, treatments are aimed at relieving symptoms. Most people are helped for variable periods of time by one or a combination of treatments.

Cysto-conray
Cysto-conray is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): iothalamate meglumine.

Cysto-conray ii
Cysto-conray ii is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): iothalamate meglumine.

Cystocele
Condition in which weakened pelvic muscles cause the base of the bladder to drop from its usual position down into the vagina.

Cystografin
Cystografin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): diatrizoate meglumine.

Cystografin dilute
Cystografin dilute is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): diatrizoate meglumine.

Cystoid Macular Edema
Macular degeneration characterized by edema and cystic spaces which may lead to a macular depression or hole.

Cystoid Macular Edemas
Macular degeneration characterized by edema and cystic spaces which may lead to a macular depression or hole.

Cystoides Intestinali, Pneumatosis
A condition characterized by the presence of thin-walled, gas-containing cysts in the wall of the intestines. The lesions may be subserosal or submucosal. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cystoides Intestinalis, Pneumatosis
A condition characterized by the presence of thin-walled, gas-containing cysts in the wall of the intestines. The lesions may be subserosal or submucosal. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cystolith
Calculi of the urinary bladder; also known as vesical calculi or bladder stones, and cystoliths.

Cystoliths
Calculi of the urinary bladder; also known as vesical calculi or bladder stones, and cystoliths.

Cystometry
Diagnostic procedure that measures bladder capacity and pressure changes as the bladder fills and empties.

Cystopyelitis
Inflammation of the pelvis of the kidney. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Cystorelin
A decapeptide hormone released by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.

Cystosarcoma Phyllodes
A variant of mammary fibroadenoma, usually of large size, with an unusually cellular, sarcoma-like stroma.

Cystoscope
An instrument with a narrow tube with light at one end of an opening.

Cystoscopes
Endoscopes for visual examination of the urinary bladder.

Cystoscopic examination
An examination of the urethra and urinary bladder with a cystoscope, an instrument with a narrow tube with light at one end of an opening.

Cystoscopic Surgeries
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.

Cystoscopic Surgery
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.

Cystoscopic Surgical Procedure
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.

Cystoscopic Surgical Procedures
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.

Cystoscopies
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.

Cystoscopy
Procedure in which a viewing tube (cystoscope) is passed through the urethra to examine the inside of the bladder and ureters or to treat a disorder.

Cystostomies
Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) for drainage of the urinary bladder.

Cystostomies, Suprapubic
Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) for drainage of the urinary bladder.

Cystostomy
Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) for drainage of the urinary bladder.

Cystostomy, Suprapubic
Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) for drainage of the urinary bladder.

Cystourethrocele
Condition that results when the urethra and its supporting tissues weaken and drop into the vagina leading to stress incontinence.

Cystoviridae
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).

Cystovirus
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).

Cysts
Any closed cavity or sac, normal or abnormal, lined by epithelium, and especially one that contains a liquid or semisolid material. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cysts, Aneurysmal Bone
Solitary lesions of bone that typically cause a bulging of the overlying cortex bearing some resemblance to the saccular protrusion of the aortic wall in aortic aneurysm, hence the name. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cysts, Apical Periodontal
Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.

Cysts, Arachnoid
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. Spinal arachnoid cysts may be extradural, intradural, or perineural and tend to present with signs and symptoms indicative of a RADICULOPATHY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)

Cysts, Bone
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.

Cysts, Branchial
A tumor derived from branchial epithelium or branchial rests. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cysts, Branchial Cleft
A tumor derived from branchial epithelium or branchial rests. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cysts, Breast
A chronic disorder comprising three variants which range from lesions consisting primarily of an overgrowth of fibrous tissue to those characterized by dominance of the proliferation of the epithelial parenchyma to a form of dysplasia characterized by both stromal and epithelial hyperplasia with the formation of cysts.

Cysts, Bronchial
A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.

Cysts, Bronchogenic
A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.

Cysts, Calcifying Odontogenic
A mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion of the jaws with features of both a cyst and a solid neoplasm. It is characterized microscopically by an epithelial lining showing a palisaded layer of columnar basal cells, presence of ghost cell keratinization, dentinoid, and calcification. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cysts, Central Nervous System
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.

Cysts, Choledochal
A congenital cystic dilatation of the common bile duct; this condition may be asymptomatic, or cause vomiting, fever, jaundice, or pain in the right upper quadrant.

Cysts, Common Bile Duct
A congenital cystic dilatation of the common bile duct; this condition may be asymptomatic, or cause vomiting, fever, jaundice, or pain in the right upper quadrant.

Cysts, Corpus Luteum
General term for cysts and cystic diseases of the ovary.

Cysts, Dental Root
An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.

Cysts, Dentigerous
Most common follicular odontogenic cyst. Occurs in relation to a partially erupted or unerupted tooth with at least the crown of the tooth to which the cyst is attached protruding into the cystic cavity. May give rise to an ameloblastoma and, in rare instances, undergo malignant transformation.

Cysts, Dentoalveolar
An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.

Cysts, Dermoid
A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Cysts, Epidermal
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Cysts, Epidermoid
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Cysts, Follicular
Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.

Cysts, Hepatic Hydatid
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Cysts, Hydatid
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.

Cysts, Intracranial Arachnoid
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. Spinal arachnoid cysts may be extradural, intradural, or perineural and tend to present with signs and symptoms indicative of a RADICULOPATHY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)

Cysts, Jaw
Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.

Cysts, Lateral
An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.

Cysts, Leptomeningeal
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. Spinal arachnoid cysts may be extradural, intradural, or perineural and tend to present with signs and symptoms indicative of a RADICULOPATHY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)

Cysts, Lymphatic
Cystic mass containing lymph from diseased lymphatic channels or following surgical trauma or other injury.

Cysts, Mediastinal
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

Cysts, Mesenteric
A congenital thin-walled cyst of the abdomen between the leaves of the mesentery, which may be of wolffian or lymphatic duct origin. As it enlarges it may cause colicky pain and intestinal obstruction. (Dorlamd, 27th ed)

Cysts, Myxoid
A nodular, tumorlike lesion in or about a tendon sheath or joint capsule, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. It is not a true cyst as it lacks an epithelial wall, and it does not communicate with the underlying synovial space. The lesion represents a focal accumulation of mucin in the dermis of the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanges or, less often, other portions of the extremities.

Cysts, Neurenteric
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)

Cysts, Neuroenteric
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)

Cysts, Nonodontogenic
Cysts formed from epithelial inclusions in the lines of fusion of the embryonic processes which form the jaws. They include nasopalatine or incisive canal cyst, incisive papilla cyst, globulomaxillary cyst, median palatal cyst, median alveolar cyst, median mandibular cyst, and nasoalveolar cyst.

Cysts, Odontogenic
Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.

Cysts, Ovarian
General term for cysts and cystic diseases of the ovary.

Cysts, Pancreatic
A true cyst of the pancreas to be distinguished from the much more common PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST by possessing a mucous epithelial lining. Pancreatic cysts are categorized as congenital, retention, neoplastic, parasitic, enterogenous, or dermoid. Congenital cysts occur more frequently as solitary cysts but may be multiple. Retention cysts are gross enlargements of pancreatic ducts secondary to ductal obstruction. (From Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p4145)

Cysts, Parovarian
A cyst of the epoophoron or parovarium, a vestigial structure associated with the ovary, consisting of a more cranial group of mesonephric tubules and a corresponding portion of the mesonephric duct. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Cysts, Periapical
Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.

Cysts, Pericardial
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

Cysts, Perineural
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. Spinal arachnoid cysts may be extradural, intradural, or perineural and tend to present with signs and symptoms indicative of a RADICULOPATHY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)

Cysts, Periodontal
An epithelium-lined sac containing fluid; usually found at the apex of a pulp-involved tooth. The lateral type occurs less frequently along the side of the root.

Cysts, Pilar
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Cysts, Pilonidal
A hair-containing cyst or sinus, occurring chiefly in the coccygeal region.

Cysts, Popliteal
A synovial cyst in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.

Cysts, Pulmonary Hydatid
Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Cysts, Radicular
Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.

Cysts, Rathke Cleft
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.

Cysts, Sebaceous
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Cysts, Solitary
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.

Cysts, Subchondral
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.

Cysts, Suprasellar
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.

Cysts, Synovial
A nodular, tumorlike lesion in or about a tendon sheath or joint capsule, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. It is not a true cyst as it lacks an epithelial wall, and it does not communicate with the underlying synovial space. The lesion represents a focal accumulation of mucin in the dermis of the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanges or, less often, other portions of the extremities.

Cysts, Tarlov
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. Spinal arachnoid cysts may be extradural, intradural, or perineural and tend to present with signs and symptoms indicative of a RADICULOPATHY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)

Cysts, Thoracic
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

Cysts, Thymic
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

Cysts, Thyroglossal
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cysts, Thyroglossal Duct
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cysts, Thyrolingual
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cysts, Tracheal
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

Cysts, Umbilical
Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.

Cysts, Urachal
Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.

Cystyl Aminopeptidase
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.



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Cyst, Umbilical
Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.

Cyst, Thyroglossal Duct
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cyst, Thyroglossal
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Cyst, Thymic
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.

Cyst, Synovial
A nodular, tumorlike lesion in or about a tendon sheath or joint capsule, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. It is not a true cyst as it lacks an epithelial wall, and it does not communicate with the underlying synovial space. The lesion represents a focal accumulation of mucin in the dermis of the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanges or, less often, other portions of the extremities.

Cyst, Thoracic

Cyst, Suprasellar
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.

Cyst, Subchondral
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.

Cyst, Solitary
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.

Cyst, Sebaceous
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Cyst, Radicular
Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.

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