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  Cross-section



Cross-section

   In anatomy, a cross-section is a transverse cut through a structure or tissue. The opposite of a cross-section is a longitudinal section. By analogy, a study may be cross-sectional or longitudinal.

RELATED TERMS
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Anatomy
The study of form. Gross anatomy involves structures that can be seen with the naked eye. It is as opposed to microscopic anatomy (or histology) which involves structures seen under the microscope.

Cross-section
In anatomy, a cross-section is a transverse cut through a structure or tissue. The opposite of a cross-section is a longitudinal section. By analogy, a study may be cross-sectional or longitudinal.

Tissue
Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function.The study of tissues is known as histology, or, in connection with disease, histopathology.The classical tools for studying the tissues are the wax block, the tissue stain, and the optical microscope, though developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and frozen sections have all added to the sum of knowledge in the last couple of decades.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Croscarmellose Sodium
It is used as an emulsifier, thickener, suspending agent, etc., in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals; in research as a culture medium; in chromatography as a stabilizer for reagents; and therapeutically as a bulk laxative with antacid properties.

Crospovidone
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.

Cross bite
Reverse biting relationship of upper and lower teeth; aka "under bite," as in Class III malocclusuion (prognathic jaw).

Cross Bite
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)

Cross Bites
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)

Cross Circulation
The circulation in a portion of the body of one individual of blood supplied from another individual.

Cross Circulations
The circulation in a portion of the body of one individual of blood supplied from another individual.

Cross Cultural Comparison
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.

Cross Eye
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a ""cross-eye"" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.

Cross Infection
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.

Cross Infections
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.

Cross Linking Reagents
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.

Cross Over Design
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Cross Over Studies
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Cross Over Trials
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Cross Product Ratio
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

Cross Reaction
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.

Cross Reactions
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.

Cross Sectional Analyses
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Cross Sectional Analysis
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Cross Sectional Anatomy
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)

Cross Sectional Echocardiography
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.

Cross Sectional Studies
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Cross Sectional Survey
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Cross Talk, Receptor
The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.

Cross training
Doing two or more aerobic activities such as jogging, bicycling, and swimming on a regular basis.

Cross, Red
An international agency providing various humanitarian services.

Cross-Cultural Comparison
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.

Cross-Cultural Comparisons
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.

Cross-Eye
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a ""cross-eye"" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.

Cross-Eyes
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a ""cross-eye"" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.

Cross-Linking Reagents
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.

Cross-Over Design
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Cross-Over Designs
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Cross-Over Studies
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Cross-Over Study
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Cross-Over Trials
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Cross-Product Ratio
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

Cross-Product Ratios
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

Cross-reactivity
The ability of an antibody, specific for one antigen, to react with a second antigen; a measure of relatedness between two different antigenic substances.

Cross-Sectional Analyses
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Cross-Sectional Analysis
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Cross-Sectional Anatomy
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)

Cross-Sectional Echocardiography
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.

Cross-Sectional Studies
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Cross-sectional study
A study done at one time, not over the course of time. A cross-sectional study might be of a disease such as AIDS at one point in time to learn its prevalence and distribution within the population. Also known as a synchronic study.

Cross-Sectional Study
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Cross-Sectional Survey
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Cross-Sectional Surveys
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Cross-Talk, Receptor
The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.

Crossarchus
Agile, keen-sighted mammals of Asia and Africa that feed on rodents and snakes. They represent several genera in the family Viverridae.

Crossbite
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)

Crossbites
Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)

Crossed embolism
Passage of a clot (thrombus) from a vein to an artery. When clots in veins break off (embolize) , they travel first to the right side of the heart and, normally, then to the lungs where they lodge. The lungs act as a filter to prevent the clots from entering the arterial circulation. However, when there is a hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (an atrial septal defect), a clot can crossparadoxically from the right to the left side of the heart, then pass into the arteries. Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block a vessel there, and cause a stroke (cerebrovascular accident). Because of the risk of stroke from crossed embolism, it is usually recommended that even small atrial septal defects be closed (repaired).

Crossed Hemiplegia
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.

Crossed Hemiplegias
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.

Crossed Immunoelectrophoresis
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.

Crosses, Red
An international agency providing various humanitarian services.

Crossing over
The exchange of genetic material between two paired chromosomes. Crossing over is a way to recombine the genetic material so that each person (except for identical twins) is genetically unique.

Crossing Over
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous chromosomes by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining.

Crossing Over (Genetics)
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous chromosomes by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining.

Crossing Overs
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous chromosomes by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining.

Crossing Overs (Genetics)
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous chromosomes by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining.

Crosslinking Reagents
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.

Crossmatching, Blood
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.

Crossmatching, Tissue
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant donors and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for histocompatibility antigens in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Crossmatchings, Tissue
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant donors and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for histocompatibility antigens in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Crossover Design
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Crossover Designs
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Crossover Immunoelectrophoresis
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.

Crossover Studies
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Crossover study
A type of clinical trial in which the study subjects receive each treatment in a random order. With this type of study, every patient serves as his or her own control.

Crossover Study
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Crossover trial
In crossover trials, each subject receives both treatments being compared (often the test drug for one period and the placebo for another period). Such trials are used for patients who have a stable, usually chronic, condition during both treatment period.

Crossover Trials
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Crossover, Nerve
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.

Crossovers, Nerve
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.

Crossroads Regional Hospital
Crossroads Regional Hospital is a hospital in Wentzville, Missouri (USA).

Crossroads Regional Medical Center
The Crossroads Regional Medical Center is a hospital in Wentzville, Missouri, United States.

Crossunited Fracture
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)

Crossunited Fractures
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Critical incident stress management
A way of providing crisis counseling that includes debriefing people who have exposed to a traumatic event. Although this method has been widely practiced, there is no convincing evidence it is effective or beneficial.

Crohn colitis
Crohn disease involving only the large intestine (colon). Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder, primarily involving the small and large intestine, but which can affect other parts of the digestive system as well.

Crohn ileitis
Inflammation of the ileum (the farthest segment of the small intestine) due to Crohn disease.

Crohn ileocolitis
Crohn disease involving the ileum (the lowest portion of the small intestine) and the colon (the large intestine).

Cross training
Doing two or more aerobic activities such as jogging, bicycling, and swimming on a regular basis.

Cross-section

Cross-sectional study
A study done at one time, not over the course of time. A cross-sectional study might be of a disease such as AIDS at one point in time to learn its prevalence and distribution within the population. Also known as a synchronic study.

Crossed embolism
Passage of a clot (thrombus) from a vein to an artery. When clots in veins break off (embolize) , they travel first to the right side of the heart and, normally, then to the lungs where they lodge. The lungs act as a filter to prevent the clots from entering the arterial circulation. However, when there is a hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (an atrial septal defect), a clot can crossparadoxically from the right to the left side of the heart, then pass into the arteries. Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block a vessel there, and cause a stroke (cerebrovascular accident). Because of the risk of stroke from crossed embolism, it is usually recommended that even small atrial septal defects be closed (repaired).

Crossing over
The exchange of genetic material between two paired chromosomes. Crossing over is a way to recombine the genetic material so that each person (except for identical twins) is genetically unique.

Crossover study
A type of clinical trial in which the study subjects receive each treatment in a random order. With this type of study, every patient serves as his or her own control.

Crotch
A nonmedical term in common usage for the region where the legs come together, the place where the lower limbs divide.

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