Congenital
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  Congenital



Congenital

    Present at birth.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Congenic Animal
Inbred strains of animals that are genetically identical except at a single locus, or a few specified loci, so that their known genetic differences are expressed in the same genetic background. A congenic strain is produced by outbreeding a strain and then eliminating the background by many generations of backcrosses while maintaining the desired genetic differences by selection of progeny. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Congenic Animals
Inbred strains of animals that are genetically identical except at a single locus, or a few specified loci, so that their known genetic differences are expressed in the same genetic background. A congenic strain is produced by outbreeding a strain and then eliminating the background by many generations of backcrosses while maintaining the desired genetic differences by selection of progeny. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Congenic Mice
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.

Congenita, Paramyotonia
Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Myotonia may be restricted to certain muscles (e.g., intrinsic hand muscles) or occur as a generalized condition. These disorders may be associated with abnormal muscle SODIUM CHANNEL and CHLORIDE CHANNELS. MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY and MYOTONIA CONGENITA represent two relatively common forms of this disorder. Proximal myotonic myopathy often presents with myotonia and muscle pain in early adulthood and later in life thigh muscle weakness and cataracts develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1392)

Congenita, X-Linked Dyskeratosis
A predominantly X-linked recessive syndrome characterized by a triad of reticular skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia of mucous membranes. Oral and dental abnormalities may also be present. Complications are a predisposition to malignancy and bone marrow involvement with pancytopenia. (from Int J Paediatr Dent 2000 Dec;10(4):328-34) The X-linked form is also known as Zinsser-Cole-Engman syndrome and involves the gene which encodes a highly conserved protein called dyskerin.

Congenital Abnormalities
Congenital malformations of organs or parts.

Congenital Abnormalities, Nervous System
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.

Congenital Abnormality
Congenital malformations of organs or parts.

Congenital Absence of Brain
A malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close. Infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level. The skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal. This condition may be associated with folate deficiency. Affected infants are only capable of primitive (brain stem) reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p247)

Congenital Absence of Cerebral Hemispheres
A congenital condition where the greater portions of the cerebral hemispheres and CORPUS STRIATUM are replaced by CSF and glial tissue. The meninges and the skull are well formed, which is consistent with earlier normal embryogenesis of the telencephalon. Bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries in utero is a potential mechanism. Clinical features include intact brainstem reflexes without evidence of higher cortical activity. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p307)

Congenital achromatopsia,
An hereditary disorder of vision characterized by a lack of cone vision (sight provided by the cone photoreceptors in the retina). People with achromatopsia (achromats) are completely or almost completely colorblind. They have poor visual acuity, and their eyes do not adapt normally to higher levels of illumination and are very light sensitive (photophobic). At higher levels of illumination, the vision of achromats decreases unless they make use of tinted lenses. In moderately bright indoor spaces or outdoors just after dawn or just before dusk, some achromats adapt to their reduced level of visual functioning without resorting to tinted lenses, by using visual strategies such as blinking, squinting, or positioning themselves in relation to the light source. Others routinely wear medium tinted lenses in such settings. In full sunlight outdoors or in very bright indoor spaces, almost all achromats use very dark tinted lenses to have a reasonable amount of vision, since their retinas do not possess the photoreceptors needed for seeing well in such settings.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
A group of syndromes caused by inherited defects in cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and, in some types, ALDOSTERONE biosynthesis. Each of the several types that occur, such as simple virilizing forms (adrenogenital syndrome), salt-wasting forms, and virilizing hypertension forms may be caused by a variety of defects. Defects in 21-hydroxylase (STEROID 21-MONOOXYGENASE) are most common. Other defects occur in the enzymes 11 beta-hydroxylase (STEROID 11 BETA-MONOOXYGENASE), 17 alpha-hydroxylase (STEROID 17 ALPHA-MONOOXYGENASE), or 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES).

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasias
A group of syndromes caused by inherited defects in cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and, in some types, ALDOSTERONE biosynthesis. Each of the several types that occur, such as simple virilizing forms (adrenogenital syndrome), salt-wasting forms, and virilizing hypertension forms may be caused by a variety of defects. Defects in 21-hydroxylase (STEROID 21-MONOOXYGENASE) are most common. Other defects occur in the enzymes 11 beta-hydroxylase (STEROID 11 BETA-MONOOXYGENASE), 17 alpha-hydroxylase (STEROID 17 ALPHA-MONOOXYGENASE), or 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES).

Congenital Amino Acidopathies
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.

Congenital Amino Acidopathy
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.

Congenital Analgesia
A syndrome characterized by indifference to PAIN despite the ability to distinguish noxious from nonnoxious stimuli. Absent corneal reflexes and MENTAL RETARDATION may be associated. Familial forms with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been described. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)

Congenital anemia
1. Anemia at birth. 2. Synonym for Rh incompatibility.

Congenital Anomalies, Nervous System
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.

Congenital anomaly
Something that is unusual or different at birth. A minor anomaly is defined as an unusual anatomic feature that is of no serious medical or cosmetic consequence to the patient. A minor anomaly of the feet might, for example, be curvature of the second toe so it overlaps the third toe a little.A major anomaly, by contrast, might be a cleft lip and palate, a birth defect of serious medical and cosmetic consequence to the child.

Congenital arthrogryposis
Nonprogressive congenital contractures that develop before birth and are evident at birth (congenital). The contractures are characterized by reduced mobility of many (multiple) joints. Congenital arthrogryposis is also called arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). In AMC the range of motion of the joints in the arms and legs is usually limited or fixed. Joints affected may include the shoulders, elbows, wrists and fingers and the hips, knees, ankles, and feet -- virtually any and all joints.

Congenital Arthromyodysplasia
Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Congenital Arthromyodysplasias
Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Congenital Auditory Agnosia
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.

Congenital Auditory Agnosias
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.

Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens
A condition in males when the tubes that carry sperm from the testes (the vas deferens) fail to develop normally. The testes usually develop and function normally and the men have normal sexual performance, but sperm cannot be transported through the male reproductive system. Men with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens are therefore infertile (unable to conceive a child). This condition is responsible for 2 to 5% of all infertility in men. Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens is due to mutations in the CFTR gene (the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene) which encodes a protein that functions as a channel across the cell membrane.

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome
Failure from birth of central nervous system control over breathing while asleep. There are usually no breathing problems while awake. The involuntary (autonomic) control of respiration is impaired, but the voluntary control of ventilation which operates during waking hours is generally intact.

Congenital Cerebral Palsy
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)

Congenital Cortical Hyperostoses
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Congenital Cortical Hyperostosis
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung
A developmental anomaly that usually becomes apparent in the neonatal period with progressive respiratory distress. This malformation is a focal pulmonary dysplasia characterized by a multicystic mass of terminal bronchiolar structures. CCAM is classified into 3 separate types (I, II, III) depending on cyst size.

Congenital deafness
Loss of hearing present at birth.

Congenital deafness and retinitis pigmentosa
Also called Usher syndrome.) A genetic disorder characterized by hearing impairment and an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa in which vision worsens over time. Some people with Usher syndrome also have balance problems.

Congenital defect
A birth defect.

Congenital Defect
Congenital malformations of organs or parts.

Congenital Defects
Problems or conditions that are present at birth.

Congenital Disorder
Diseases existing at birth and often before birth, or that develop during the first month of life (INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES), regardless of causation. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed ABNORMALITIES.

Congenital Disorders
Diseases existing at birth and often before birth, or that develop during the first month of life (INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES), regardless of causation. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed ABNORMALITIES.

Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia
A familial disorder characterized by anemia with multinuclear erythroblasts, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. Type II is the most common of the 3 types of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.

Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias
A familial disorder characterized by anemia with multinuclear erythroblasts, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. Type II is the most common of the 3 types of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.

Congenital Ectodermal Defect
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.

Congenital Ectodermal Defects
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.

Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria
Autosomal recessive porphyria characterized by splenomegaly, photosensitivity, hemolytic anemia, and the appearance of red urine in early infancy. This condition results from increased synthesis of uroporphyrinogen I relative to uroporphyrinogen III in bone marrow normoblasts.

Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyrias
Autosomal recessive porphyria characterized by splenomegaly, photosensitivity, hemolytic anemia, and the appearance of red urine in early infancy. This condition results from increased synthesis of uroporphyrinogen I relative to uroporphyrinogen III in bone marrow normoblasts.

Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion
A heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by the early onset of hypotonia, developmental delay of motor skills, non-progressive weakness. Each of these disorders is associated with a specific histologic muscle fiber abnormality.

Congenital Foot Deformities
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.

Congenital Foot Deformity
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.

Congenital Hand Deformities
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.

Congenital Hand Deformity
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.

Congenital Heart Defect
Imperfections or malformations of the heart, existing at birth.

Congenital Heart Defects
Imperfections or malformations of the heart, existing at birth.

Congenital heart disease
"A malformation of the heart or the large blood vessels near the heart. The term ""congenital"" speaks only to time, not to causation; it means ""born with"" or ""present at birth."""

Congenital heart problems
May include ventricular septal defect (a hole in the septum) and transposition of the great vessels, where the pulmonary artery and the aorta are reversed. May be corrected with surgery soon after birth, usually with a high rate of success.

Congenital Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.

Congenital Hemolytic Anemias
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.

Congenital hemolytic jaundice
Known also as hereditary spherocytosis (HS), this is a genetic disorder of the red blood cell membrane clinically characterized by anemia, jaundice (yellowing) and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen).

Congenital hip dislocation
The abnormal formation of the hip joint in which the ball at the top of the thighbone (the femoral head) is not stable within the socket (the acetabulum). The ligaments of the hip joint may also be loose and stretched.

Congenital Hip Dislocation
Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.

Congenital Hip Dislocations
Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.

Congenital Hip Dysplasia
Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.

Congenital Hip Dysplasias
Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.

Congenital Hydrocephalus
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA (and in infants macrocephaly). This condition may be caused by obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid pathways due to neurologic abnormalities, INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions. Impaired resorption of cerebrospinal fluid from the arachnoid villi results in a communicating form of hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus ex-vacuo refers to ventricular dilation that occurs as a result of brain substance loss from CEREBRAL INFARCTION and other conditions.

Congenital Hyperostoses, Cortical
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Congenital Hyperostosis, Cortical
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Congenital Hypocupremia
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)

Congenital Hypocupremias
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)

Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia
An inborn condition characterized by deficiencies of red cell precursors that sometimes also includes LEUKOPENIA and THROMBOCYTOPENIA.

Congenital Hypoplastic Anemias
An inborn condition characterized by deficiencies of red cell precursors that sometimes also includes LEUKOPENIA and THROMBOCYTOPENIA.

Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma
Designation for several severe forms of ichthyosis, present at birth, that are characterized by hyperkeratotic scaling. Infants may be born encased in a collodion membrane which begins shedding within 24 hours. This is followed in about two weeks by persistent generalized scaling. The forms include bullous (HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC), non-bullous (ICHTHYOSIS, LAMELLAR), wet type, and dry type.

Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Dry Type
Designation for several severe forms of ichthyosis, present at birth, that are characterized by hyperkeratotic scaling. Infants may be born encased in a collodion membrane which begins shedding within 24 hours. This is followed in about two weeks by persistent generalized scaling. The forms include bullous (HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC), non-bullous (ICHTHYOSIS, LAMELLAR), wet type, and dry type.

Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Wet Type
Designation for several severe forms of ichthyosis, present at birth, that are characterized by hyperkeratotic scaling. Infants may be born encased in a collodion membrane which begins shedding within 24 hours. This is followed in about two weeks by persistent generalized scaling. The forms include bullous (HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC), non-bullous (ICHTHYOSIS, LAMELLAR), wet type, and dry type.

Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythrodermas
Designation for several severe forms of ichthyosis, present at birth, that are characterized by hyperkeratotic scaling. Infants may be born encased in a collodion membrane which begins shedding within 24 hours. This is followed in about two weeks by persistent generalized scaling. The forms include bullous (HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC), non-bullous (ICHTHYOSIS, LAMELLAR), wet type, and dry type.

Congenital Indifference to Pain
A syndrome characterized by indifference to PAIN despite the ability to distinguish noxious from nonnoxious stimuli. Absent corneal reflexes and MENTAL RETARDATION may be associated. Familial forms with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been described. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)

Congenital Infection, Toxoplasma gondii
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)

Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis
A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)

Congenital Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations
Congenital vascular anomalies of the brain characterized by tangles of thin walled arteries which communicate directly with veins without intervening capillaries. The malformations vary greatly in size and location, and produce symptoms through rupture (see also INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES), mass effect, and vascular steal effect. Clinical presentation is often delayed until the fourth or fifth decade when affected individuals may develop headaches, seizures, and focal neurologic deficits. Large hemorrhages may result in coma or death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p848)

Congenital Limb Deformities
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.

Congenital lymphedema
A condition present at birth in which excess fluid called lymph collects in tissues and causes swelling (edema) in them. Congenital lymphedema is due to a congenital malformation (that is, a birth defect) of the lymphatic system.

Congenital malformation
A physical defect present in a baby at birth, irrespective of whether the defect is caused by a genetic factor or by prenatal events that are not genetic. In a malformation, the development of a structure is arrested, delayed, or misdirected early in embryonic life and the effect is permanent.

Congenital neutropenia, severe (SCN)
Children born with this condition lack neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infection). These children suffer frequent infections from bacteria which in the past led to death in three-quarters of cases before 3 years of age. This disease is also known as severe congenital neutropenia (SCN).

Congenital ptosis of the eyelids
"Drooping of the upper eyelids at birth. The lids may droop only slightly or they may cover the pupils and restrict or even block vision. Moderate or severe ptosis calls for treatment to permit normal vision development. If not corrected, amblyopia (""lazy eye"") may develop which can lead to permanently poor vision. Ptosis at birth is often caused by poor development of the levator muscle which lifts the eyelid. Children with ptosis may tip their heads back into a chin-up position to see underneath the eyelids or raise their eyebrows in an attempt to lift up the lids. Congenital ptosis rarely improves with time. Mild or moderate ptosis usually does not require surgery early in life. Treatment is usually surgery to tighten the eyelid-lifting muscles, the levators. If the levator is very weak, the lid can be attached or suspended from under the eyebrow so that the forehead muscles can do the lifting. Even after surgery, focusing problems can develop as the eyes grow and change shape. All children with ptosis, whether they have had surgery or not, should therefore be followed by an ophthalmologist."

Congenital rubella syndrome
The constellation of abnormalities caused by infection with the rubella (German measles) virus before birth. The syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital malformations (birth defects) and mental retardation.

Congenital stationary night blindness
"An inherited eye disorder that is not progressive (""stationary"") and principally affects the rod photoreceptors in the retina, impairing night vision. There may also be moderate to high myopia (short sightedness). Under good lighting conditions, there is usually no visual deficit. The disorder is diagnosed by electroretinography. There are several different types of the disorder which are inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive manner. The X-linked type affects almost exclusively males and accounts for the predominance of males with congenital stationary night blindness. Children with the disorder may have a fear of the dark."

Congenital torticollis
A deformity of the neck that is evident at birth. It is due to shortening of the neck muscles. Congenital torticollis tilts the head to the side on which the neck muscles are shortened so that the chin points to the other side.

Congenital Toxoplasma Infection
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)

Congenital Toxoplasma Infections
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)

Congenital Toxoplasmoses
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)

Congenital Toxoplasmosis
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)

Congenital vaccinia
Infection of the fetus in the last trimester of pregnancy due to bloodborne dissemination of the vaccinia virus in the pregnant woman after she has received a smallpox vaccination. The affected infant is often premature. The skin lesions in the newborn infant are like a fresh vaccination but often confluent and extensive. Death almost always occurs before birth or shortly thereafter. To prevent this dire disorder, it is recommended that pregnant women not be vaccinated unless special circumstances may call for it (e.g., they have been exposed to a smallpox patient or are a household member of a smallpox case).

Congenital Vascular Malformations, Central Nevous System
Congenital or acquired malformations involving arteries, veins, or venous sinuses of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.

Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities
Diseases existing at birth and often before birth, or that develop during the first month of life (INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES), regardless of causation. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed ABNORMALITIES.

Congestive Atelectases
A syndrome of life-threatening progressive pulmonary insufficiency in the absence of known pulmonary disease, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major trauma.

Congestive Atelectasis
A syndrome of life-threatening progressive pulmonary insufficiency in the absence of known pulmonary disease, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major trauma.

Congestive Cardiomyopathies
A syndrome characterized by cardiac enlargement and congestive heart failure. It probably represents the end result of many forms of myocardial damage produced by a variety of toxic, metabolic, or infectious agents.

Congestive Cardiomyopathy
A syndrome characterized by cardiac enlargement and congestive heart failure. It probably represents the end result of many forms of myocardial damage produced by a variety of toxic, metabolic, or infectious agents.

Congestive heart failure
A condition in which the heart cannot pump out all of the blood that enters it, which leads to an accumulation of blood in the vessels and fluid in the body tissues.

Congestive Heart Failure
Heart failure caused by loss of pumping power by the heart, resulting in fluids collecting in the body. Congestive heart failure often develops gradually over several years, although it also can happen suddenly. It can be treated by drugs and in some cases, by surgery.

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF or heart failure)
A condition where the heart muscle weakens and can not pump blood efficiently throughout the body.

Conglutinating Complement Absorption Test
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.

Conglutination Reaction
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.

Conglutinogen Activating Factors
Compounds which inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate Complement 3b. A well-known inhibitor is a beta-globulin which cleaves C3b into inactive fragments C3c and C3d. C3bINA plays a key role in the regulation of the complement system by blocking the cytolytic sequence and preventing recruitment of the properdin amplification loop.

Congo doctor
A doctor who, being or not a citizen of that country, has been admitted to practice medicine in Congo.

Congo Eel
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.

Congo Eels
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.

Congo Red
An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.

Congo Virus
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.

Congo Virus Infection
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).

Congo Virus Infections
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).

Congocidine
A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.

Congophilic Angiopathies
A heterogeneous group of disorders that includes sporadic and familial forms, characterized clinically by cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), CEREBRAL INFARCTION, and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE. Pathologically the condition is marked by the deposition of AMYLOID in the walls of small blood vessels in the cerebral cortex and meninges. The sporadic form is associated with lobar cerebral hemorrhage in the elderly and ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (From Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1996 Jun;22(3):216-227; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p852)

Congophilic Angiopathy
A heterogeneous group of disorders that includes sporadic and familial forms, characterized clinically by cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), CEREBRAL INFARCTION, and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE. Pathologically the condition is marked by the deposition of AMYLOID in the walls of small blood vessels in the cerebral cortex and meninges. The sporadic form is associated with lobar cerebral hemorrhage in the elderly and ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (From Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1996 Jun;22(3):216-227; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p852)

Congress (PT)
Published records of the papers delivered at or issued on the occasion of individual congresses, symposia, and meetings; abstracts of papers delivered at such congresses; reports of the officers and delegates of such congresses; combinations of the foregoing; or proceedings of the conference of a society if they are not limited to matters of internal organization.

Congresses
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.

Congresses (PT)
Published records of the papers delivered at or issued on the occasion of individual congresses, symposia, and meetings; abstracts of papers delivered at such congresses; reports of the officers and delegates of such congresses; combinations of the foregoing; or proceedings of the conference of a society if they are not limited to matters of internal organization.

Congresses and Conferences
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.

Congresses [Publication Type]
Published records of the papers delivered at or issued on the occasion of individual congresses, symposia, and meetings; abstracts of papers delivered at such congresses; reports of the officers and delegates of such congresses; combinations of the foregoing; or proceedings of the conference of a society if they are not limited to matters of internal organization.



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Colposcopy
Visual examination of the cervix and vagina using a lighted magnifying instrument (colposcope).

Common bile duct
The tube that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine.

Common bile duct obstruction
A blockage of the common bile duct, often caused by gallstones.

Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan)
A non-invasive procedure that takes cross-sectional images of the brain or other internal organs, used to detect any abnormalities that may not show up on an ordinary x-ray. The CT scan may indicate enlarged lymph nodes -- a possible sign of a spreading cancer or of an infection.

Cone biopsy
Surgical removal of a cone-shaped section of tissue from the cervix for the treatment of cervical dysplasia.

Congenital

Congestive heart failure
A condition in which the heart cannot pump out all of the blood that enters it, which leads to an accumulation of blood in the vessels and fluid in the body tissues.

Contact dermatitis
A rash or an inflammation of the skin caused by contact with various substances.

Continence
The ability to hold in a bowel movement or urine.

Continent ileostomy
An operation to create a pouch from part of the small intestine. Stool that collects in the pouch is removed by inserting a small tube through an opening made in the abdomen.

Coronary arteries
Two arteries that come from the aorta to provide blood to the heart muscle.

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