Coenzyme
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  Coenzyme



Coenzyme

   A substance that enhances the action of an enzyme. (An enzyme is a protein that functions as a catalyst to mediate and speed a chemical reaction).

RELATED TERMS
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Enzyme
A cellular protein whose shape allows it to hold together several other molecules in close proximity to each other. In this way, enzymes are able to induce chemical reactions in other substances with little expenditure of energy and without being changed themselves. Basically, an enzyme acts as a catalyst.

Protein
Any of a group of complex organic compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur, the characteristic element being nitrogen. Proteins, the principal constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, are of high molecular weight and consist essentially of combinations of a-amino acids in peptide linkages. Twenty different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, and each protein has a unique genetically defined amino acid sequence which determines its specific shape and function. Their roles include enzymatic catalysis, transport and storage, coordinated motion, nerve impulse generation and many others.

Catalyst
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not consumed or altered in the process. Catalysts are of immense importance in chemistry and biology.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Coenzyme Q10
A compound needed for the proper functioning of an enzyme, a protein that speeds up the rate at which chemical reactions take place in the body. Coenzyme Q10 is used to produce energy to fuel cell growth and maintenance. Coenzyme Q10 is thought to improve the function of mitochondria, the "powerhouses" that produce energy in cells. Coenzyme Q10 is also an antioxidant, a substance that protects cells from highly reactive chemicals called free radicals that can damage cells and their DNA. The highest amounts of coenzyme Q10 are in the heart, liver, kidneys, and pancreas and the lowest amounts are in the lungs. The levels of coenzyme Q10 normally decline with age.



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Code
The genetic code is the correspondence between the triplet of bases in DNA with the amino acids.

Codes, drug caution
Abbreviations on medications that indicate caution. While not a part of the historical heritage of ancient prescription abbreviations, drug caution codes provide very valuable warnings.

Coding DNA
A sequence of DNA that codes for protein. Coding DNA sequences are separated by long regions of DNA called introns that have no apparent function. Coding DNA is also known as an exon.

Codon
A set of any three adjacent bases in the DNA or RNA. There are 64 different codons of which 61 specify the incorporation of an amino acid into a polypeptide chain while the remaining three are stop codons that signal the end of a polypeptide.

Coefficient of inbreeding
A measure of how close two people are genetically to each another. The coefficient of inbreeding, symbolized by the letter F, is the probability that a person with two identical genes received both genes from one ancestor.

Coenzyme

Coenzyme Q10
A compound needed for the proper functioning of an enzyme, a protein that speeds up the rate at which chemical reactions take place in the body. Coenzyme Q10 is used to produce energy to fuel cell growth and maintenance. Coenzyme Q10 is thought to improve the function of mitochondria, the "powerhouses" that produce energy in cells. Coenzyme Q10 is also an antioxidant, a substance that protects cells from highly reactive chemicals called free radicals that can damage cells and their DNA. The highest amounts of coenzyme Q10 are in the heart, liver, kidneys, and pancreas and the lowest amounts are in the lungs. The levels of coenzyme Q10 normally decline with age.

Coeval
Of the same or equal age or duration. For example, the two elderly men were coeval with one another. Coeval usually refers to coexistence for a very long time.

Coffin-Lowry syndrome
An X-linked form of mental retardation in which the affected males have short stature and characteristic face, finger and skeletal abnormalities. Facial features include prominent forehead, widespread eyes, downslanting eyeslits, prominent ears, thick lips and irregular/missing teeth. The hands are large and soft with lax skin and tapering fingers. Skeletal changes include kyphosis/scoliosis and pectus carinatum (pigeon breast) or pectus excavatum (caved-in chest). The syndrome is due to mutation of the gene on the X chromosome that encodes RSK2, a growth-factor regulated protein kinase.

Cogan corneal dystrophy
A disorder in which the cornea (the normally clear front window of the eye) shows grayish fingerprint lines, geographic map-like lines, and dots (or microcysts) on examination with a slit-lamp that focuses a high intensity light beam as a slit while the examiner looks at the front of the eye through a magnifying scope.

Cogan syndrome
Arteritis (also referred to as vasculitis) that involves the ear. Cogan syndrome features not only problems of the hearing and balance portions of the ear, but also inflammation of the front of the eye (the cornea) and often fever, fatigue, and weight loss. Joint and muscle pains can also be present. Less frequently, the arteritis can involve blood vessels elsewhere in the body as in the skin, kidneys, nerves, and other tissues and organs. Cogan syndrome can lead to deafness or blindness.

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