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   In medicine, the clotting of blood. The process by which the blood clots to form solid masses, or clots.


The sealing of a blood vessel with coagulated blood.

The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.


Coagulation Problems
Problem with blood clotting, either too much clotting or not enough.

Coagulation, laser
The coagulation (clotting) of tissue using a laser. A coagulation laser produces light in the visible green wavelength that is selectively absorbed by hemoglobin, the pigment in red blood cells, in order to seal off bleeding blood vessels.

A disease affecting the coagulability of the blood.


CNS (central nervous system)
That part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.

CNS prophylaxis
Chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the central nervous system (CNS). This is preventative treatment. It is given to kill cancer cells that may be in the brain and spinal cord, even though no cancer has been detected there.

Pertaining to two or more disorders simultaneously.

A payment made by an individual who has health insurance, usually at the time a service is received, to offset some of the cost of care. Co-payments are a common feature of HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) and PPO (Preferred Provider Organization) health plans in the US. Co-payment size may vary depending on the service, generally with low copayments required for visits to a regular medical provider and higher payments for services received in the emergency room, the latter intended to discourage insured persons from using the emergency room unless it is absolutely necessary. Also called co-insurance.

An event in the immune system involving the delivery of a second signal by an antigen-presenting cell. The second signal rescues the activated T cell from anergy (which is a state of immune unresponsiveness), allowing the T cell to produce the lymphokines necessary for the growth of additional T cells.


Coagulation, laser
The coagulation (clotting) of tissue using a laser. A coagulation laser produces light in the visible green wavelength that is selectively absorbed by hemoglobin, the pigment in red blood cells, in order to seal off bleeding blood vessels.

A narrowing, a stricture, a constriction. Although the best known coarctation is of the aorta, any artery can have a coarctation. The word "coarctation" comes from the Latin "coartare" meaning :to press together." The sides of the vessel at the point of a coarctation appear pressed together.

Coarctation of the aorta
A congenital constriction of the aorta, impeding the flow of blood below the level of the constriction and increasing blood pressure above the constriction. Symptoms may not be evident at birth but may develop as soon as the first week after birth with congestive heart failure or high blood pressure that call for early surgery. The surgery otherwise can be delayed. The outlook after surgery is favorable. Some cases have been treated by balloon angioplasty.

Coated stent
Also known as a medicated stent. A tiny cage coated with a drug to prop open an artery and prevent it from closing again.

Bacteria which are spherically shaped.

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