Cholinergic
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  Cholinergic



Cholinergic

   Relating to nerve cells or fibers that employ acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter.

RELATED TERMS
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Nerve
Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.

Acetylcholine
The neurotransmitter substance at cholinergic synapses, which causes cardiac inhibition, vasodilation, gastrointestinal peristalsis, and other parasympathetic effects. It is liberated from preganglionic and postganglionic endings of parasympathetic fibers and from preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic as a result of nerve injuries, whereupon it acts as a transmitter on the effector organ; it is hydrolyzed into choline and acetic acid by acetylcholinesterase before a second impulse may be transmitted.

Neurotransmitter
Specialized chemical messenger (eg, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin) that sends a message from one nerve cell to another. Most neurotransmitters play different roles throughout the body, many of which are not yet known.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Cholac
Cholac is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): lactulose.

Cholangiogram
A radiologic procedure used to look at the gallbladder and bile ducts.

Cholangiography
A series of x-rays of the bile ducts.

Cholangiography, percutaneous transhepatic
Radiographic examination of the liver and bile ducts done by inserting a thin needle through the skin into the liver and injecting contrast medium in order to visualize blockage of the liver and bile ducts.

Cholangitis
Irritated or infected bile ducts.

Cholebrine
Cholebrine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): iocetamic acid.

Cholecalciferol
Vitamin D3.

Cholecyst
The gallbladder. The word cholecyst is not much used today but it figures into a number of other terms to do with the gallbladder Cholecystectomy is removal of the gallbladder. Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. Cholecystogram is an x-ray of the gallbladder.

Cholecystectomy
An operation to remove the gallbladder.

Cholecystitis
An irritated gallbladder.

Cholecystokinin
A hormone released in the small intestine. Causes muscles in the gallbladder and the colon to tighten and relax.

Cholecystotomy
Incision into the gallbladder.

Choledocholithiasis
Gallstones in the bile ducts.

Choledyl
Choledyl is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): oxtriphylline.

Choledyl sa
Choledyl sa is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): oxtriphylline.

Cholelith
Gallstone; bile stone.

Cholelithiasis
Gallstones in the gallbladder.

Cholera
A devastating and sometimes lethal disease with intense vomiting and profuse watery diarrhea leading to dehydration which, unless immediately treated, may be fatal.

Cholera genome
The genome of the bacterium called Vibrio cholerae that causes cholera. This genome contains over 4 million bases in its DNA including the sequences for nearly 4,000 genes.

Cholestasis
Blocked bile ducts often caused by gallstones.

Cholestasis with peripheral pulmonary stenosis
Also known as arteriohepatic dysplasia or Alagille syndrome, this ia a genetic disorder characterized by yellowing of the skin (jaundice) in the newborn period, liver disease with cholestasis, peripheral pulmonic stenosis and unusual face. Children with Alagille syndrome usually present with jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes) in the newborn period. Cholestasis (stagnant flow of bile from the liver) then develops with puritis (itching), stools without the usual yellowing brown color, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Peripheral pulmonic stenosis is a form of congenital heart disease (CHD). Other types of CHD also occur. The face has deep- set eyes, broad forehead, long nose with flat tip, prominence of the chin, and low-set or malformed ears. The outlook (prognosis) depends upon the degree of severity of the CHD and the liver disease (it can cause liver failure). The condition is an autosomal dominant trait meaning that the gene for it is on a non-sex chromosome (an autosome) and a single edition of the Alagille gene is sufficient to produce the disease. The gene has been discovered on chromosome 20 in band 20p12

Cholesteatoma
A tumor-like mass that sometimes forms as a result of a chronic middle ear infection.

Cholesterol
A substance similar to fat that is found in the blood, muscles, liver, brain, and other body tissues.

Cholesterol ester transfer protein
A protein that helps regulate the size of cholesterol particles and influence the process of atherogenesis (the formation of plaques in arteries). Abbreviated CETP. The CETP gene is in chromosome band 16q21. A number of mutations are known in the CETP gene. Some result in CEPT deficiency, increased levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol and unusually large cholesterol particles. CETP deficiency appears to be a good mutation which is antiatherogenic and may confer unusual longevity to the person. Also called cholesteryl ester transfer protein.

Cholesterol guidelines
The guidelines on cholesterol for adults.

Cholestin
One of the three major preparations of red yeast rice, a tradition Chinese medicine now used to lower cholesterol. Cholestin is also known as Hypocol.

Cholestyramine
Cholestyramine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): cholestyramine.

Cholestyramine light
Cholestyramine light is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): cholestyramine.

Choletec
Choletec is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m mebrofenin kit.

Cholografin meglumine
Cholografin meglumine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): iodipamide meglumine.

Cholografin sodium
Cholografin sodium is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): iodipamide sodium.

Cholovue
Cholovue is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): iodoxamate meglumine.

Choloxin
Choloxin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dextrothyroxine sodium.

Cholybar
Cholybar is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): cholestyramine .



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Coordinating committee
A committee that a sponsor may organise to coordinate the conduct of a multicentre trial.

Correlation
The relationship of one variable to another, not to be confused with causation.

Crossover trial
In crossover trials, each subject receives both treatments being compared (often the test drug for one period and the placebo for another period). Such trials are used for patients who have a stable, usually chronic, condition during both treatment period.

Cerebrospinal
Relating to the brain and the spinal cord.

Chemoprophylaxis
Prevention of disease by the use of chemicals or drugs.

Cholinergic

Coagulopathy
A disease affecting the coagulability of the blood.

Coccobacillus
A short, thick bacterial rod of the shape of an oval or slightly elongated coccus.

Carcinogenic
Of a substance which causes cancer.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
A progressive lung disease process characterized by difficulty breathing, wheezing, and a chronic cough. Complications include bronchitis, pneumonia, and lung cancer.

Chrysotile
Basic silicate of magnesium, one of six naturally occurring fibrous minerals forming the group called asbestos. White in color, the only mineral of the serpentine subgroup of asbestos. Constituted up to 95% of all industrial asbestos.

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