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   Relating to the brain and the spinal cord.


"That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium (skull). The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called ""hemispheres."" "

1. In anatomy, a long ropelike structure. 2. Short for the spinal cord or the umbilical cord.


Cerea flexibilitas
The "waxy flexibility" often present in catatonic schizophrenia in which the patient's arm or leg remains in the position in which it is placed.

Pertaining to the cerebellum, the part of the brain in the back of the head between the cerebrum and the brain stem. The cerebellum controls balance for walking and standing and other complex motor functions.

Cerebellopontine angle
The angle between the cerebellum and the pons, a common site for the growth of acoustic neuromas.

A large structure consisting of two halves (hemispheres) located in the lower part of the brain; responsible for the coordination of movement and balance.

Referring to the cerebrum.

Cerebral aneurysm
A localized widening of a vessel within the brain.

Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE)
Gas bubbles traveling and lodging (embolizing) in the arteries that supply the brain with blood (and oxygen).

Cerebral calcification, nonarteriosclerotic
This syndrome is a genetic (inherited) neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium in certain of areas of the brain (including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex). Symptoms may include motor function deterioration, dementia, mental retardation, spastic paralysis, dysarthria (poorly articulated speech), spasticity (stiffness of the limbs), ocular (eye) problems, and athetosis (involuntary, writhing movements).

Cerebral cortex
The external gray layer of the brain, the neocortex

Cerebral edema
Accumulation of excessive fluid in the substance of the brain. The brain is especially susceptible to injury from edema, because it is located within a confined space and cannot expand.

Cerebral embolism
A brain attack that occurs when a wandering clot (embolus) or some other particle forms in a blood vessel away from the brain -- usually in the heart.

Cerebral Embolism
A common cause of stroke - an embolus that has moved through the blood stream and obstructs an artery leading to the brain.

Cerebral fornix
An arching fibrous band in the brain connecting the two lobes of the cerebrum. (The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and consists of two hemispheres separated by a deep longitudinal fissure). Each fornix in the brain is an arched tract of nerves.

Cerebral hemispheres
The two halves of the cerebrum, the largest part of the brain.

Cerebral hemorrhage
A type of stroke occurs when a defective artery in the brain bursts, flooding the surrounding tissue with blood.

Cerebral herniation
The abnormal protrusion of brain tissue through an opening when there is increased intracranial pressure (when the brain is under increased pressure). The increased pressure may be due to a number of causes including inflammation of the brain (as in meningitis), a tumor, hemorrhage, and edema (swelling of the brain). The tonsils of the cerebellum, for example, may be forced from their normal position (within the posterior fossa of the skull) through the foramen magnum into the vertebral canal. This is usually fatal.

Cerebral infarct
A localised area of cell death in the brain due to inadequate blood flow.

Cerebral palsy
A variety of disorders resulting from damage to the brain before or during birth or in the first few years of life. Extent of motor involvement varies greatly, from a sight limp or as profound as paralysis, spasticity or speech problems, as well as associated disorders of learning problems, sensory deficits, convulsive and behavioral disturbances of organic origin.

Cerebral thrombosis
The most common type of brain attack, it occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms and blocks blood flow in an artery bringing blood to part of the brain.

Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA)
The medical term used to describe a stroke

Cerebral ventricle
One of a system of four communicating cavities within the brain that are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord.

Inflammation of the brain.

Cerebrohepatorenal syndrome
A genetic disorder, which is also called the Zellweger syndrome, characterized by the reduction or absence of peroxisomes (cell structures that rid the body of toxic substances) in the cells of the liver, kidneys, and brain. Zellweger syndrome is one of a group of disorders called the leukodystrophies, all of which affect the myelin sheath, the fatty covering which acts as an insulator on nerve fibers in the brain.

Cerebrospinal fluid
The clear fluid made in the ventricular cavities of the brain that bathes the brain and spinal cord. It circulates through the ventricles and the subarachnoid space.

Pertaining to blood vessels in the brain.

Cerebrovascular accident
Apoplexy or stroke; an impeded blood supply to the brain.

Cerebrovascular Disease
Damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke. The blood vessels become blocked because of fat deposits or they become thick and hard, blocking the flow of blood to the brain. Sometimes, the blood vessels may burst, resulting in a hemorrhagic stroke. People with diabetes are at higher risk of cerebrovascular disease.

Cerebrovascular disease
1. A general term for any disease of the blood vessels and, especially, the arteries that supply the brain. 2. Specifically, a synonym for atherosclerosis of the arteries that supply the brain. 3. Even more specifically, a synonym for a stroke.

Cerebrovascular ferrocalcinosis
A condition that is a genetic (inherited) neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium in certain of areas of the brain (including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex).

Cerebrovascular occlusion
An obstruction in the blood vessel in the brain.

Consists of two parts (lobes), left and right, which form the largest and most developed part of the brain; initiation and coordination of all voluntary movement take place within the cerebrum. The basal ganglia are located immediately below the cerebrum.

Cerebyx is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): fosphenytoin sodium.

Ceredase is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): alglucerase.

Ceretec is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m exametazime kit.

Cerezyme is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): imiglucerase.


Controlled study
A study in which a test treatment is compared with a treatment that has known effects. The control group may receive no treatment, standard treatment, or placebo.

Coordinating centre
Headquarters for a multisite trial that collects all data.

Coordinating committee
A committee that a sponsor may organise to coordinate the conduct of a multicentre trial.

The relationship of one variable to another, not to be confused with causation.

Crossover trial
In crossover trials, each subject receives both treatments being compared (often the test drug for one period and the placebo for another period). Such trials are used for patients who have a stable, usually chronic, condition during both treatment period.


Prevention of disease by the use of chemicals or drugs.

Relating to nerve cells or fibers that employ acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter.

A disease affecting the coagulability of the blood.

A short, thick bacterial rod of the shape of an oval or slightly elongated coccus.

Of a substance which causes cancer.

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