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   A sequence of successive activation reactions involving enzymes (enzyme cascade) or hormones (hormone cascade) characterized by a series of amplifications of an initial stimulus. In blood coagulation, for example, each enzyme activates the next until the final product, the fibrin clot, is reached.


Proteins that act as a catalysts in mediating and speeding a specific chemical reaction.

Biological compounds that communicate information at a distance. Hormones require specific receptors to begin their biological action and use second messengers to initiate the cellular process that uses that information.

The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

In medicine, the clotting of blood. The process by which the blood clots to form solid masses, or clots.

A cellular protein whose shape allows it to hold together several other molecules in close proximity to each other. In this way, enzymes are able to induce chemical reactions in other substances with little expenditure of energy and without being changed themselves. Basically, an enzyme acts as a catalyst.

A filamentous protein formed from the precursor fibrinogen by the enzyme thrombin.

A jelly-like mass of blood.


Cascade Medical Center
The Cascade Medical Center is a hospital in Leavenworth, Washington, United States.

Cascade Valley Hospital
Cascade Valley Hospital is a hospital in Arlington, Washington (USA).

Cascades Female Factory
The Cascades Female Factory is a hospital in Tasmania, Australia.

Cascavel doctors
All doctors near Cascavel, Brazil. Doctors who can assist a patient in Cascavel.


Carotid stenosis
Abnormal narrowing of the carotid artery, often a preamble to a stroke.

Carpal bone
One of the wrist bones. There are eight carpal bones that are arranged in two rows.

Carpal tunnel release
A surgical procedure to relieve pressure exerted on the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (the carpal tunnel syndrome). The median nerve is pinched in the wrist as it passes through the carpal tunnel. The buildup of scar tissue inside the carpal tunnel leads to this problem. Treatment options include splinting, anti-inflammatory agents, and surgery. The surgical release is performed via a small incision using conventional surgery or a fiberoptic scope (endoscopic carpal tunnel repair).

Carrier test
A test designed to detect carriers of a gene for recessive genetic disorder. For example, carrier testing is done for sickle cell trait, thalassemia trait, and the Tay-Sachs gene.

Cartilage hair hypoplasia syndrome
A specific genetic form of short-limbed dwarfism with skeletal features that also include normal head, inability to fully extends the elbows, chest cage deformity, bow legs (genu varum), and the tibia shorter than the fibula. The fingers are usually loose-jointed and the fingernails foreshortened. Biopsy shows hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of cartilage to be the nature of the skeletal abnormality. The hair is unusually fine, sparse and light-colored. Microscopically, it has an abnormally small caliber. Many patients with cartilage hair hypoplasia have a major immunologic defect that is manifested, for example, as an unusual susceptibility to chickenpox. In addition to lymphopenia (lack of lymphocytes), some patients have anemia and neutropenia (lack of neutrophiliuc white blood cells). There is an increased malignancy risk, especially lymphoma and skin cancer. A condition called aganglionic megacolon (Hirschsprung disease) is also found in some patients.


Case-fatality proportion
The number of cases of a disease ending in death compared to the number of cases of the disease. Usually expressed as a percentage.

Case-to-infection ratio
The ratio of the number of cases of a disease compared to the number of infections with the agent that causes the disease. Also called the case-to-infection proportion.

The main protein found in milk and other dairy products.

Cashew allergy
An allergic reaction to cashew nuts. Cashew allergy can be isolated, meaning that the individual is only allergic to cashews and not to other nuts, or the allergy may extend to other kinds of tree nuts such as walnuts and pistachios. Isolated cashew allergy can strike children or adults. No prior exposure to cashews is required for an allergic reaction to cashews.

Caspase 3
An enzyme that plays a key role in programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Caspase 3 has been called the "henchman that goes around and executes the cell." It is a member of the family of asparate-specific cysteinyl proteases and is also known as caspase-3, CPP32, apopain, or YAMA.

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