Carbohydrate
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  Carbohydrate



Carbohydrate

   One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy. Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose (a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells). The body also uses carbohydrates to make a substance called glycogen that is stored in the liver and muscles for future use. If the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it has, which are the basic problems in most forms of diabetes, then the body will not be able to use carbohydrates for energy the way it should.

RELATED TERMS
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Foods
Anything which, when taken into the body, serves to nourish or build up the tissues or to supply body heat. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Carbohydrates
A type of food, usually derived from plants; one of three nutrients that supply calories to the body; includes simple carbohydrates (sugar, fruit) and complex carbohydrates (vegetables, starches).

Glucose
The only simple carbohydrate that circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain. It can also be stored in the liver and muscles in a polymer form known as glycogen.

Sugar
A class of carbohydrates that taste sweet. Sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Types of sugar are lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose.

Glycogen
The storage form of glucose. Only glycogen from the liver can be used to restore blood glucose levels.

Liver
The largest organ in the body. The liver carries out many important functions, such as making bile, changing food into energy, and cleaning alcohol and poisons from the blood.

Future
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.

Insulin
The hormone that drives incoming nutrients into cells for storage. Excess insulin is the primary pillar of aging.

Forms
A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the developing, maintaining, and handling of forms and records.

Diabetes
A condition in which blood glucose is not well controlled. Type I diabetics make no insulin, whereas type 2 diabetics are characterized by the overproduction of insulin, but the inability of the target cells to respond to the insulin.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Carb
Slang for carbohydrate. Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principal types of nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Carbohydrates can also be defined chemically as neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Carbachol
Carbachol is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): carbachol.

Carbamazepine
An anticonvulsant.

Carbastat
Carbastat is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): carbachol.

Carbatrol
Carbatrol is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): carbamazepine.

Carbidopa
Carbidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. Dopa decarboxylase is an enzyme that converts levodopa into dopamine - a major neurotransmitter and neuromodular of cellular function. Carbidopa is sometimes used to prevent the peripheral conversion of levodopa into dopamine in peripheral sites such as the gut, thus allowing more levodopa to reach the brain where it can have therapeutic effects.

Carbidopa and levodopa
Carbidopa and levodopa is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): carbidopa; levodopa.

Carbilev
Carbilev is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): carbidopa; levodopa.

Carbinoxamine maleate
Carbinoxamine maleate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): carbinoxamine maleate.

Carbo-loading
An eating routine used by some athletes that involves downing large amounts of carbohydrates several days before a potentially exhausting endurance event. Carbo-loading has no known potential benefits for anyone except athletes under these special circumstances.

Carbocaine
Carbocaine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): mepivacaine hydrochloride.

Carbocaine with neo-cobefrin
Carbocaine with neo-cobefrin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): levonordefrin; mepivacaine hydrochloride.

Carbohydrate intake, infant
Carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, galactose, etc.) are sugars or several sugars linked together. Carbohydrates provide energy (calories) for the brain tissues, muscles, and other organs.

Carbohydrates
A type of food, usually derived from plants; one of three nutrients that supply calories to the body; includes simple carbohydrates (sugar, fruit) and complex carbohydrates (vegetables, starches).

Carbolic acid
A synonym of phenol. In dilute solution, an antimicrobial agent.

Carbon dioxide
An odorless, colorless gas produced as the end product of aerobic respiration.

Carbon Dioxide
A gas created during metabolism, when the cells use oxygen to burn fat and release energy. The lungs release it when you breathe out.

Carbon dioxide content
A measure of the bicarbonate level in the blood. The normal carbon dioxide content may vary somewhat from one laboratory to another.

Carbon monoxide
An odorless, colorless, poisonous gas produced from the incomplete combustion of carbon. Prevents the blood from carrying oxygen.

Carbon Monoxide
A gas found in cigarette smoke; damages artery walls and reduces the ability of blood to carry oxygen, increasing the risk of coronary artery disease.

Carbon monoxide poisoning
Poisoning with carbon monoxide, a tasteless odorless gas that is a byproduct of combustion. Carbon monoxide acts as a poison by competing with oxygen for binding sites on hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the more remote tissues of the body and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. On inhalation, carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin with a binding affinity 200--270 times greater than that of oxygen.

Carbondale Nursing Home
The Carbondale Nursing Home is a hospital in Carbondale, Pennsylvania, United States.

Carboplatin
Carboplatin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): carboplatin.

Carboxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobin that has carbon monoxide instead of the normal oxygen bound to it. Carbon monoxide has a much great affinity than oxygen for hemoglobin. Carboxyhemoglobin is formed in carbon monoxide poisoning. The source of the carbon monoxide may be exhaust (such as from a car, truck, boat or generator), smoke from a fire, or tobacco smoke. The level of carboxyhemoglobin is a measure of the degree of carbon monoxide exposure.

Carboxyhemoglobinemia
The presence of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. Carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin that has carbon monoxide bound to it, is formed in carbon monoxide poisoning, as from exhaust (such as from a car, truck, boat or generator), smoke from a fire, or tobacco smoke.

Carbuncle
A hard, painful, pus-filled infection of the skin. Carbuncles are larger than boils and frequently have more than one opening.

Carbuncles
A skin abscess, a collection of pus that forms inside the body. Antibiotics are often not very helpful in treating abscesses. The main treatments include hot packs and draining ("lancing") the abscess, but only when it is soft and ready to drain. If you have a fever or long-term illness, such as cancer or diabetes, or are taking medications that suppress the immune system, you should contact your healthcare practitioner if you develop an abscess.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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C.S.W.
Certified Social Worker.

C.D.E.
A health professional who is certified by the National Certification Board for Diabetes Educators to teach people with diabetes how to manage their condition. The criteria to obtain this certification include:

C-Peptide
A substance that the pancreas releases into the bloodstream in equal amounts to insulin. A test of C-peptide levels will show how much insulin the body is making.

Calcium Channel Blocker
A drug used to lower blood pressure.

Capsaicin
Capsaicin, derived from hot peppers, is the active ingredient in the creams used to relieve the pain of peripheral neuropathy.

Carbohydrate

Cardiologist
A doctor who sees and takes care of people with heart disease; a heart specialist.

Celiac syndrome (also spelled coeliac syndrome)
An autoimmune disorder of the upper intestinal mucosa that is triggered by cereal proteins, especially wheat gluten, and which leads to a malabsorption of all nutrients, primarily of fat. It can be detected by the presence of anti-transglutaminase antibodies. If these are positive it would be justifiable to take a mucosal biopsy and if this is positive, then dietary treatment is all that is required.

Cerebrovascular Disease
Damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke. The blood vessels become blocked because of fat deposits or they become thick and hard, blocking the flow of blood to the brain. Sometimes, the blood vessels may burst, resulting in a hemorrhagic stroke. People with diabetes are at higher risk of cerebrovascular disease.

Chlorpropamide
A pill taken to lower the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Only some people with noninsulin-dependent diabetes take these pills.

Clinical Trial
A scientifically controlled study carried out in people, usually to test the effectiveness of a new treatment.

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