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    A disease involving the destruction of liver cells and diminished liver function. Cirrhosis can block blood flow to the liver causing high blood pressure and/or jaundice.


Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

The largest organ in the body. The liver carries out many important functions, such as making bile, changing food into energy, and cleaning alcohol and poisons from the blood.

A chronic liver condition caused by scar tissue and cell damage. Cirrhosis makes it hard for the liver to remove poisons (toxins) like alcohol and drugs from the blood. These toxins build up in the blood and may affect brain function.

The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

A condition in which the skin and the whites of the eyes become yellow, urine darkens, and the color of stool becomes lighter than normal. Jaundice occurs when the liver is not working properly or when a bile duct is blocked.


Cirrhosis and gray matter degeneration
A progressive disease of the nervous system characterized by spasticity (tightness), myoclonus and dementia and by liver problems with jaundice and cirrhosis.


Crohn's disease
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the digestive tract and it can involve any part of it - from the mouth to the anus.It typically affects the terminal ileum as well as demarcated areas of large bowel with relatively normal bowel. It is often associated with auto-immune disorders outside the bowel, such as aphthous stomatitis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Cystic fibrosis
A disease that most commonly affects the lungs and digestive system, especially the pancreas. It causes the exocrine glands, which produce mucus and sweat, to produce abnormal secretions. CF causes the cells in the lung tissue to produce an abnormal amount of thick, sticky mucus that clogs the airways of the lungs, resulting in pulmonary obstructions and life-threatening bacterial infections.

Inflammation of the large intestine (colon), especially of its mucous membranes. Spastic colitis is commonly "nervous," or psychosomatic, in origin and is usually a temporary upset rather than a chronic inflammation; this disorder may account for 50 percent of all digestive-tract illnesses. Its symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea (sometimes alternating with constipation), and erratic frequency of bowel movements. Treatment of this disorder is basically supportive and psychological in approach.

Hormones produced by the adrenal gland which are important to almost every function of cells and organs. They are divided into two groups: glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Glucocorticoids regulate protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism. Mineralocorticoids regulate electrolyte balances.

One of the components of a cell membrane.


Chiropractic medicine
Chiropractic medicine is a form of treatment that uses manipulative therapy to correct subluxation, which many chiropracters hold are the cause of most disease. Although manipulative therapy has been shown to have some efficacy in treating back pain, headache, and other symptoms of spinal-related conditions, the application of chiropractic medicine as a cure or outside of this specific area is controversial and generally rejected by medical doctors in most countries. Practictioners of chiropractic medicine generally hold themselves out as doctors of chiropratic (D.C.). The use of manipulative therapy by D.C.'s to treat back pain, headache, and other spinal and musculo-skeletal symptoms enjoys wide acceptance by government medical authorities in many nations, where it is covered by many health plans such as Medicare in the United States. Although some medical doctors (M.D.'s) and many doctors of osteopathy (D.O.'s) do perform manipulative therapy, more than 90% of the treatment of back pain by manipulative therapy is performed by D.C.'s. The studies have shown a high level of patient satisfaction with manipulative therapy by persons with back problems.

Chorionic gonadotropin
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the trophoblast (part of the placenta). Its role is to prevent the demise of the corpus luteum of the ovary and thereby maintain progesterone production that is critical for a pregnancy in humans. hCG may have additional functions, for instance it is thought that it affects the immune tolerance of the pregnancy.

System of protein filaments in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell a polarized shape and the capacity for directed movement. Its most abundant components are actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.

Cell nucleus
An organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells, which contains most of the cell's genetic material. Nuclei have two primary functions: to control chemical reactions within the cytoplasm and to store information needed for cellular division. Plural: nuclei.

A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which controls the levels of calcium and phosphorous in the blood.

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