Breathing
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  Breathing



Breathing

   The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through the mouth or nose due to muscle contraction, and then exhaled due to muscle relaxation.

RELATED TERMS
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Respiration
The act or process of breathing. The process by which a living organism or cell takes in oxygen from the air or water and uses it.

Lungs
The main respiratory organs in the chest where blood is oxygenated.

Muscle
Tissue made up of bundles of long, slender cells that contract when stimulated.

Contraction
During labor, the strong, rhythmic tightening of the uterus. Pre-laborcontractions are usually irregular and don't increase in intensity orduration.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Brea Community Hospital
The Brea Community Hospital is a hospital in Brea, California, United States.

Breach Candy Hospital
The Breach Candy Hospital is a hospital in Mumbai, India.

Breadbasket
A popular term for the stomach in both senses: 1. The digestive organ, as to hear the breadbasket rumble with hunger. 2. The belly, as to have a big breadbasket.

Breakbone fever
"An acute mosquito-borne viral illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with headache, fever, prostration, severe joint and muscle pain, swollen glands (lymphadenopathy) and rash. The presence (the ""dengue triad"") of fever, rash, and headache (and other pains) is particularly characteristic. Better known as dengue, the disease is endemic throughout the tropics and subtropics. It goes by other names including dandy fever. Victims of dengue often have contortions due to the intense joint and muscle pain. Hence, the name ""breakbone fever."" Slaves in the West Indies who contracted dengue were said to have ""dandy fever"" because of their postures and gait. "

Breast
The breast refers to the front of the chest or, more specifically, to the mammary gland. The mammary gland is a milk producing gland. It is composed largely of fat. Within the mammary gland is a complex network of branching ducts. These ducts exit from sac-like structures called lobules, which can produce milk in females. The ducts exit the breast at the nipple.

Breast abscess
A local accumulation of pus within the breast due to infection. Symptoms may include painful local swelling of the breast, a breast lump, and redness and tenderness of the breast. If the abscess forms in spite of antibiotics, it may need to be incised and drained, a minor surgical procedure, in order to heal. See also: Breast infection.

Breast absence
A rare condition wherein the normal growth of the breast or nipple never takes place. They are congenitally absent. There is no sign whatsoever of the breast tissue, areola or nipple. There is nothing there.

Breast aplasia
A rare condition wherein the normal growth of the breast or nipple never takes place. They are congenitally absent. There is no sign whatsoever of the breast tissue, areola or nipple. There is nothing there.

Breast augmentation
Enlargement of the breasts. Augmentation of the breast typically consists of insertion of a silicone bag (prosthesis) under the breast (submammary) or under the breast and chest muscle (subpectoral) and then filling the bag with saline (salt water). This prosthesis expands the breast area to give a fuller breast (increased cup size), give a better contour, and give more cleavage.

Breast biopsy
A procedure in which a sample of a suspicious breast growth is removed and examined, usually for the presence of cancer. The sample is suctioned out through a needle or removed surgically.

Breast bone
Familiar name for the sternum, the long flat bone in the middle of the front of the chest.

Breast cancer
A malignant disease of breast tissue. Incidence increases with age and risk factors include a family history of breast cancer, late menopause, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Initial symptoms may include a small painless lump, thick or dimpled skin, or nipple retraction.

Breast cancer gene
One of the genes that contributes to breast cancer.

Breast cancer gene BRCA1
A gene that normally acts to restrain the growth of cells in the breast but, when mutated, predisposes to breast cancer.

Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1)
A gene that plays a role in preventing the metastasis (spread) of breast cancer to other parts of the body and so may improve breast cancer survival. The BRMS1 gene is on chromosome 11.

Breast cancer susceptibility genes
Inherited factors that predispose to breast cancer. Put otherwise, these genes make one more susceptible to the disease and so increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Two of these genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified (and prominently publicized). Several other genes (those for the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden disease, Muir-Torre syndrome, and ataxia-telangiectasia) are also known to predispose to breast cancer. However, since all of these known breast cancer susceptibility genes together do not account for more than a minor fraction (1/5th at most) of breast cancer that clusters in families, it is clear that more breast cancer genes remain to be discovered.

Breast cancer, familial
A number of factors have been identified that increase the risk of breast cancer. One of the strongest of these risk factors is the history of breast cancer in a relative. About15-20% of women with breast cancer have such a family history of the disease, clearly reflecting the participation of inherited (genetic) components in the development of some breast cancers. Dominant breast cancer susceptibility genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, appear responsible for about 5% of all breast cancer.

Breast cancer, male
Breast cancer in a man. Male breast cancer is much less common than breast cancer in women. Fewer than 1% of persons with breast cancer are male. However, breast cancer is no less dangerous in males than in females. After the diagnosis of breast cancer is made, the mortality rates are virtually the same for men and for women.

Breast development, early
The beginning of breast development at puberty is known medically as thelarche. It is now a normal event at an earlier age (e.g., age 8) than in the past.

Breast discharge
The spontaneous flow of fluid from the nipple at any time other than during nursing. This can be due to an unrecognized pregnancy, trauma, surgery, overexercise, or certain drugs. It can also be due to cirrhosis of the liver, false pregnancy (pseudocyesis), kidney failure, disorders of the spinal cord, or a prolactinoma, a benign pituitary tumor that secretes the hormone prolactin stimulating milk production.

Breast enlargement pill
Breast enlargement pills have recently appeared in the market. Their purpose is to help women develop larger breasts.

Breast fibroadenoma
A common benign (not malignant) tumor of the breast. Usually called simply a fibroadenoma.

Breast infection
Infection of breast tissue usually caused by bacteria, most often staph (Staphylococcus aureus), which are found on the skin and enter the breast through a break in the skin or nipple, as during breast-feeding. The infected breast may be swollen, hot, reddened, and painful. There may be low grade fever. Treatment includes warm wet compresses and antibiotics.

Breast lump
A localized swelling, knot, bump, bulge or protuberance in the breast. Breast lumps may appear in both sexes at all ages. In women, the fear is usually of breast cancer but many breast lumps turn out, fortunately, to be due to benign conditions that can be successfully treated such as infection, trauma, fibroadenoma, cyst, or fibrocystic condition of the breast. However, no breast lump should be dismissed as benign until it has been checked by a physician.

Breast pain
Pain in the breast or mammary gland, known medically as mastalgia.

Breast pump
A device to extract milk from a mother's breasts so she can feed her infant later with a bottle. Pumps range from inexpensive manual models to powerful industrial-strength machines that can pump both breasts at the same time within a few minutes.

Breast reduction
Surgical reduction of breast size in order to reduce the weight of the breasts and relieve symptoms from unusually large, pendulous breasts. The surgical procedure is also known as reduction mammaplasty.

Breast self-examination (BSE)
Routine, monthly examination of the breasts.

Breast surgeon
A surgeon who is especially skilled in operating on the breast. A breast surgeon may biopsy a tumor in the breast and, if it is malignant, remove the tumor. A breast surgeon may also do breast reconstruction following a mastectomy for breast cancer. The surgeons who carry out this type of breast reconstruction may be breast oncology surgeons or plastic surgeons. (Surgeons trained in both these specialities are known as oncoplastic surgeons.) Some breast surgeons also do cosmetic breast surgery.

Breast trauma
Physical damage to a breast. If a breast is injured by trauma, tiny blood vessels may rupture to cause localized bleeding (a hematoma). The hematoma can be felt as a lump. Trauma to the breast can also damage the fat cells in the breast tissue, a condition called fat necrosis. Fat necrosis can form a lump in the breast. This type of lump is not cancer.

Breast, amastia
A rare condition wherein the normal growth of the breast or nipple never takes place. They are congenitally absent. There is no sign whatsoever of the breast tissue, areola or nipple. There is nothing there.

Breast, infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is one of several recognized specific patterns of cancer of the breast. It is so named because it begins in the cells forming the ducts of the breast. It is the most common form of breast cancer, comprising 65-85% of all cases.

Breast, infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the
Infiltrating lobular carcinoma is the second most common type of invasive breast cancer next to infiltrating ductal carcinoma, accounting for 5 to 10% of breast cancer.

Breastfeeding
"Feeding a child human breast milk. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, human breast milk is preferred for all infants. This includes even premature and sick babies, with rare exceptions. It is the food least likely to cause allergic reactions; it is inexpensive; it is readily available at any hour of the day or night; babies accept the taste readily; and the antibodies in breast milk can help a baby resist infections."

Breastfeeding practices
The practices to be followed in breastfeeding a baby. Human milk is the preferred feeding for all infants, including premature and sick newborns, with rare exceptions. When direct breastfeeding is not possible, expressed human milk, fortified when necessary for the premature infant, should be provided. The following recommendations are based on those of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Breathing Tube (endotracheal tube)
A temporary tube put into the nose or mouth. Anesthesia or air and oxygen pass through the tube allowing artificial breathing.

Breathtek ubt for h-pylori
Breathtek ubt for h-pylori is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): urea, c-13.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Breast, amastia
A rare condition wherein the normal growth of the breast or nipple never takes place. They are congenitally absent. There is no sign whatsoever of the breast tissue, areola or nipple. There is nothing there.

Breast, infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is one of several recognized specific patterns of cancer of the breast. It is so named because it begins in the cells forming the ducts of the breast. It is the most common form of breast cancer, comprising 65-85% of all cases.

Breast, infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the
Infiltrating lobular carcinoma is the second most common type of invasive breast cancer next to infiltrating ductal carcinoma, accounting for 5 to 10% of breast cancer.

Breastfeeding
"Feeding a child human breast milk. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, human breast milk is preferred for all infants. This includes even premature and sick babies, with rare exceptions. It is the food least likely to cause allergic reactions; it is inexpensive; it is readily available at any hour of the day or night; babies accept the taste readily; and the antibodies in breast milk can help a baby resist infections."

Breastfeeding practices
The practices to be followed in breastfeeding a baby. Human milk is the preferred feeding for all infants, including premature and sick newborns, with rare exceptions. When direct breastfeeding is not possible, expressed human milk, fortified when necessary for the premature infant, should be provided. The following recommendations are based on those of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Breathing

Breech
The buttocks.

Breslow thickness
A method for determining the prognosis with melanoma. The thickness of a melanoma is related to the 5-year survival rate after surgical removal of the tumor.

Brill-Zinsser disease
Recrudescence of epidemic typhus years after the initial attack. The agent that causes epidemic typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) remains viable for many years and then when host defenses are down, it is reactivated causing recurrent typhus. The disease is named for the physician Nathan Brill and the great bacteriologist Hans Zinsser.

Brittle bone disease
Osteogenesis imperfecta, not one but a group of genetic diseases, all of which affect collagen, a key component of connective tissue in tissues like bone, tendon and skin. All types of osteogenesis imperfecta result in fragile bones.

Broken hip
Fractured bone in the hip, a key health problem among the elderly, usually due to a fall or other kind of trauma involving direct impact to the hip bone which has been weakened by osteoporosis. The part of the hip most often broken is the greater trochanter of the femur.

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