Rate and extent to which a drug is absorbed or is otherwise available to the treatment site in the body.
Chemically affecting a living being.
The use of a range of biological techniques on archaeological material in order to learn more about past populations. In bioarchaeology, one might isolate and amplify DNA from very old bones such as from the frozen body of the 9,000-year-old Ice Man who was found in the Italian Alps.
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Study trial in which a particular type of subject is equally represented in each study group.
Assessment of subjects as they enter a trial and before they receive any treatment.
Bayesian approaches (statistics)
Approaches to data analysis that provide a posterior probability distribution for some parameter (for example, treatment effect), derived from the observed data and a prior probability distribution for the parameter. The posterior distribution is then used as the basis for statistical inference.
Beta error (statistics)
See Type 2 error.
In a parallel trial design, differences between subjects are used to assess treatment differences.
Scientific basis on which generic and brand-name drugs are compared. To be considered bioequivalent, the bioavailability of two products must not differ significantly when the two products are given in studies at the same dosage under similar conditions.
Application of statistics to biological and medical problems.
The checking and assessment of data during the period of time between trial completion (the last observation on the last subject) and the breaking of the blind, for the purpose of finalising the planned analysis.
Products that appear identical in size, shape, colour, flavour, and other attributes to make it very difficult for subjects and investigators to determine which medication is being administered.
One in which the subject or the investigator (or both) are unaware of what trial product a subject is taking. See also double-blind study, single-blind study, triple-blind study.
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