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   Chemically affecting a living being.


The use of a range of biological techniques on archaeological material in order to learn more about past populations. In bioarchaeology, one might isolate and amplify DNA from very old bones such as from the frozen body of the 9,000-year-old Ice Man who was found in the Italian Alps.

Rate and extent to which a drug is absorbed or is otherwise available to the treatment site in the body.


Blood agar
A mixture of blood and nutrient agar, used for the cultivation of many medically important microorganisms.

A genus of encapsulated, nonmotile bacteria (family Brucellaceae) containing short, rod-shaped to coccoid, Gram-negative cells. These organisms are parasitic, invading all animal tissues and causing infection of the genital organs, the mammary gland, and the respiratory and intestinal tracts, and are pathogenic for man and various species of domestic animals. They do not produce gas from carbohydrates.

A large blister appearing as a circumscribed area of separation of the epidermis from the subepidermal structure (subepidermal bulla) or as a circumscribed area of separation of epidermal cells (intraepidermal bulla) caused by the presence of serum, or occasionally by an injected substance.

Butchart staging system
The staging system most often used for mesothelioma. It is divided into Stages I - IV with the levels determined by the tissue involved.

The treatment of illness by baths (e.g., mud baths).


Bulimia (binge-eating syndrome, bulimarexia, bulimia nervosa, BN)
That eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating; recurrent willful vomiting and/or other recurrent inappropriate compensatory measures to prevent weight gain (e.g., laxative abuse, diuretic abuse, or overexercising); and an excessive influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation.

Background Retinopathy
Early stage of diabetic retinopathy; usually does not impair vision. Also called "nonproliferative retinopathy."

Basal/Bolus Insulin Administration
Using several daily injections of fast-acting insulin (e.g., NovoLog, Humalog, or Regular), at mealtimes -- the bolus doses -- together with one or more daily injections of long acting insulin (e.g., Lantus, UltraLente, or NPH) -- the basal doses -- to achieve blood sugar control in a manner similar to that used by people who use insulin pumps.

Basal Rate
Refers to a continuous supply of low levels of insulin, as in insulin pump therapy.

Beta Cell
A type of cell in the pancreas in areas called the Islets of Langerhans. Beta cells make and release insulin, a hormone that controls the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

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