Bicycle helmet A well-known but often neglected device designed to protect the head of a bicyclist.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
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Pertaining to both alleles (both alternative forms of a gene). For example, biallelic mutations in the gene MYH predispose to colon cancer.
1. When a point of view prevents impartial judgment on issues relating to the subject of that point of view. In a clinical trial, bias refers to effects that a conclusion that may be incorrect as, for example, when a researcher or patient knows what treatment is being given. To avoid bias, a blinded study may be done. 2. Deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such systematic deviation. Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth.
In medicine, bicarbonate usually refers to bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate, baking soda) white powder that is common ingredient in antacids. Also, the bicarbonate level is an indirect measure of the acidity of the blood that is determined when electrolytes are tested. The normal serum range for bicarbonate is 22-30 mmol/L.
Having two horns or horn-shaped branches. The uterus (normally unicornuate) can sometimes be bicornuate (with two branches, eg, one at about 10:30 and the other at about 1:30).
Bicuspid aortic valve
Whereas the normal aortic valve in the heart has three flaps (cusps) that open and close, a bicuspid valve has only two. There may be no symptoms in childhood, but in time the valve may become stenotic (narrowed), making it harder for blood to pass through it, or the valve may start to let blood leak backwards through the valve (regurgitate). Treatment depends on how the valve is working.
Bid (on prescription)
"Seen on a prescription, bid means twice (two times) a day. It is an abbreviation for ""bis in die"" which in Latin means twice a day. The abbreviation bid is sometimes written without a period either in lower-case letters as ""bid"" or in capital letters as ""BID"" or with periods as ""b.i.d."" However it is written, it is one of a number of hallowed abbreviations of Latin terms that have been traditionally used in prescriptions to specify the frequency with which medicines should be taken. "
Bietti crystalline dystrophy
A genetic eye disease that leads to progressive night blindness and visual field constriction and is characterized by the formation of crystals in the cornea (the clear covering of the eye), yellow shiny deposits on the retina, and progressive atrophy of the retina and choroid (the back layers of the eye). Average age of onset is 29. Lipid inclusions are present not only in the cornea but also in blood lymphocytes, suggesting a systemic disorder of lipid metabolism. There is no known treatment. The disease is an autosomal recessive trait (the gene is on chromosome 4q35-qter) and is named for G. B. Bietti, an Italian ophthalmologist, who described it in 1937. Also called Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy.
Cleft (split) in two. See, for example, bifid uvula.
The uvula, the little V-shaped fleshy mass hanging from the back of the soft palate, is cleft or split. Cleft uvula is a common minor anomaly occurring in about 1% of whites and 10% of Native Americans. Persons with a cleft uvula should not have their adenoids removed because, without the adenoids, they cannot achieve proper closure between the soft palate and pharynx while speaking and develop hypernasal speech.
Big bone disease
See: Kashin-Beck disease.
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