Bicuspid aortic valve
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  Bicuspid aortic valve



Bicuspid aortic valve

   Whereas the normal aortic valve in the heart has three flaps (cusps) that open and close, a bicuspid valve has only two. There may be no symptoms in childhood, but in time the valve may become stenotic (narrowed), making it harder for blood to pass through it, or the valve may start to let blood leak backwards through the valve (regurgitate). Treatment depends on how the valve is working.

RELATED TERMS
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Aortic
Pertaining to the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

Valve
A fold in the lining of an organ that prevents fluid from flowing backward.

Heart
The hollow, muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system.

Flaps
Tongues of tissue (skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle) cut away from the underlying parts but attached at one end. They retain their own blood supply during transfer to the new site. They are used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region. The concept includes pedicled flaps, rotation flaps, tube flaps, etc.

Bicuspid
A tooth named for the two-pointed projections on the crown.

Childhood
1. The time for a boy or girl from birth until he or she is an adult. 2. The more circumscribed period of time from infancy to the onset of puberty.

Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Bicuspid
A tooth named for the two-pointed projections on the crown.

Bicuspid or pre-molar
Transitional teeth behind the cuspids.

Bicuspid Valve
A valve with two leaflets (cusps) instead of three.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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BIA
Bioelectric impedance analysis.

Biallelic
Pertaining to both alleles (both alternative forms of a gene). For example, biallelic mutations in the gene MYH predispose to colon cancer.

Bias
1. When a point of view prevents impartial judgment on issues relating to the subject of that point of view. In a clinical trial, bias refers to effects that a conclusion that may be incorrect as, for example, when a researcher or patient knows what treatment is being given. To avoid bias, a blinded study may be done. 2. Deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such systematic deviation. Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth.

Bicarbonate
In medicine, bicarbonate usually refers to bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate, baking soda) white powder that is common ingredient in antacids. Also, the bicarbonate level is an indirect measure of the acidity of the blood that is determined when electrolytes are tested. The normal serum range for bicarbonate is 22-30 mmol/L.

Bicornuate
Having two horns or horn-shaped branches. The uterus (normally unicornuate) can sometimes be bicornuate (with two branches, eg, one at about 10:30 and the other at about 1:30).

Bicuspid aortic valve

Bicycle helmet
A well-known but often neglected device designed to protect the head of a bicyclist.

Bid (on prescription)
"Seen on a prescription, bid means twice (two times) a day. It is an abbreviation for ""bis in die"" which in Latin means twice a day. The abbreviation bid is sometimes written without a period either in lower-case letters as ""bid"" or in capital letters as ""BID"" or with periods as ""b.i.d."" However it is written, it is one of a number of hallowed abbreviations of Latin terms that have been traditionally used in prescriptions to specify the frequency with which medicines should be taken. "

Bietti crystalline dystrophy
A genetic eye disease that leads to progressive night blindness and visual field constriction and is characterized by the formation of crystals in the cornea (the clear covering of the eye), yellow shiny deposits on the retina, and progressive atrophy of the retina and choroid (the back layers of the eye). Average age of onset is 29. Lipid inclusions are present not only in the cornea but also in blood lymphocytes, suggesting a systemic disorder of lipid metabolism. There is no known treatment. The disease is an autosomal recessive trait (the gene is on chromosome 4q35-qter) and is named for G. B. Bietti, an Italian ophthalmologist, who described it in 1937. Also called Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy.

Bifid
Cleft (split) in two. See, for example, bifid uvula.

Bifid uvula
The uvula, the little V-shaped fleshy mass hanging from the back of the soft palate, is cleft or split. Cleft uvula is a common minor anomaly occurring in about 1% of whites and 10% of Native Americans. Persons with a cleft uvula should not have their adenoids removed because, without the adenoids, they cannot achieve proper closure between the soft palate and pharynx while speaking and develop hypernasal speech.

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