Autoimmunity
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  Autoimmunity



Autoimmunity

    An immune response to "self" tissues or components. Such an immune response may have pathological consequences leading to autoimmune diseases.

RELATED TERMS
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Immune
Resistant to a particular disease.

Autoimmune
Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the immune system goes awry and attacks the body itself. Autoimmunity is present to some extent in everyone and is usually harmless. However, autoimmunity can cause a broad range of human illnesses, known collectively as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases occur when there is progression from benign autoimmunity to pathogenic autoimmunity. This progression is determined by genetic influences as well as environmental triggers. Autoimmunity is evidenced by the presence of autoantibodies (antibodies directed against the person who produced them) and T cells that are reactive with host antigens.

Diseases
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Auto-stereogram
Unlike classical Random Dot Stereograms (RDS Ref) which require two separate images presented dichoptically, an autostereogram consists of just one images viewed by two eyes simultaneously. A depth percept is attained from this image.

Autoabasiophilia
A paraphilia of the eligibilic/stigmatic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and contingent on the fantasy of being lame, with a limp, or crippled. The reciprocal paraphilic condition is abasiophilia in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and contingent on the partner being lame, with a limp, or crippled.

Autoallergy
An immune response to "self" tissues or components. Such an immune response may have pathological consequences leading to autoimmune diseases.

Autochthonous
1. Native. Poison ivy is an autochthonous plant. 2. Found in the place where it formed. As an autochthonous thrombus. 3. From the same individual. As an autochthonous graft. Or autochthonous lymphocytes. Autochthonous is the adjective and autochthon is the noun.

Autoclave
A chamber for sterilizing with steam under pressure. The original autoclave was essentially a pressure cooker. The steam tightened the lid.

Autocrine hormones
Hormones that act upon the secreting cell. They are used to sample the immediate environment surrounding the cell. Eicosanoids are the best-known example of autocrine hormones.

Autoerotic
Pertaining to sexuoerotic self-stimulation. The commonest form of autoeroticism is digital, that is, masturbation using the fingers and hands.

Autoerotic death
Death from self-strangulatory asphyxia or electrical self-stimulation as part of a paraphilic masturbatory ritual. Release of the asphyxiating noose or reduction of the electrical current requires split-second timing at the critical moment, before blacking out. The autoerotic ritual may be repeated for years before the occasion when the critical moment is miscalculated and death ensues.

Autoeroticism
Sensual self-gratification. Characteristic of, but not limited to, an early stage of emotional development. Includes satisfactions derived from genital play, masturbation, fantasy, and oral, anal, and visual sources.

Autogenous
Self-produced.

Autograft
A tissue transplant from one area to another on a single individual.

Autoimmune
Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the immune system goes awry and attacks the body itself. Autoimmunity is present to some extent in everyone and is usually harmless. However, autoimmunity can cause a broad range of human illnesses, known collectively as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases occur when there is progression from benign autoimmunity to pathogenic autoimmunity. This progression is determined by genetic influences as well as environmental triggers. Autoimmunity is evidenced by the presence of autoantibodies (antibodies directed against the person who produced them) and T cells that are reactive with host antigens.

Autoimmune disease
Or autoimmune disorder. A category of diseases and disorders in which one's own cells are mistakenly identified as "foreign" by the body and are therefore attacked by the immune system, causing tissue damage.

Autoimmune disorder
Or autoimmune disease. A category of diseases and disorders in which one's own cells are mistakenly identified as "foreign" by the body and are therefore attacked by the immune system, causing tissue damage.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
A condition in which the immune system attacks the red blood cells, resulting in fewer of these oxygen-transporting cells. See also: Hemolytic anemia.

Autoimmune hepatitis
A liver disease caused when the body's immune system destroys liver cells for no known reason.

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy
A genetic autoimmune disease with an extraordinary array of clinical features but characterized most often by at least 2 of the following 3 findings: hypoparathyroidism -- underfunction of the parathyroid glands which control calcium, candidiasis (yeast infection), and adrenal insufficiency (underfunction of the adrenal gland). APECED was the first systemic (bodywide) autoimmune disease found due to a defect in a single gene.

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome
A genetic autoimmune disease with an extraordinary array of clinical features but characterized most often by at least 2 of the following 3 findings: hypoparathyroidism -- underfunction of the parathyroid glands which control calcium, candidiasis (yeast infection), and adrenal insufficiency (underfunction of the adrenal gland). The autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome was the first systemic (bodywide) autoimmune disease found due to a defect in a single gene.

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome
A group of autoimmune disorders that involve endocrine glands and which result in failure of the glands to produce their hormones. (Also called autoimmune endocrine failure syndrome, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, and immunoendocrinopathy syndrome.)

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS)
A genetic autoimmune disease with an extraordinary array of clinical features but characterized most often by at least 2 of the following 3 findings: hypoparathyroidism -- underfunction of the parathyroid glands which control calcium, candidiasis (yeast infection), and adrenal insufficiency (underfunction of the adrenal gland). APS was the first systemic (bodywide) autoimmune disease found due to a defect in a single gene.

Autoimmune process
"A process in which the body?s immune system attacks and destroys body tissue that it mistakes for foreign matter. See also: Autoimmune disease; and Autoimmunity."

Autoimmune thyroiditis
See: Hashimoto thyroiditis.

Autologous
Coming from the same individual, as opposed to being donated by another individual.

Autologous blood donation
Giving blood to yourself. For example, patients scheduled for non-emergency surgery may be eligible to donate blood for themselves that will be stored until the surgical procedure.

Autolysis
Self-dissolution.

Automated external defibrillator
A device that automatically analyzes the heart rhythm and, if it detects a problem that may respond to an electrical shock, that permits a shock to be delivered to restore a normal heart rhythm. Abbreviated AED. Thanks to their small size and ease of use, AEDs have been installed in many settings (such as schools and airports) and serve a role in expanding the number of opportunities for life-saving defibrillation.

Automated white cell differential
A machine-generated percentage of the different types of white blood cells, usually split into granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.

Automatic behavior
"A behavior that is performed without conscious knowledge and that does not appear to be under conscious control. This curious type of behavior occurs in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. The neurologic disorders associated with automatic behavior include narcolepsy (the sudden recurrent uncontrollable compulsion to sleep) and some forms of epilepsy (such as psychomotor epilepsy). The psychiatric conditions associated with automatic behavior include schizophrenia (catatonic type) and fugue (flight) states. Automatic behavior involves doing something ""automatically"" and not remembering afterwards how one did it or even that one did it. Automatic behavior is also called automatism."

Automatic gain control
A fast gain control that aims to a constant output by changing gain in proportion to signal strength.

Automatic seizure
A form of complex partial seizure characterized by automatisms, which are unconscious movements that may resemble simple repetitive movements or may be complex sequences of natural-looking, almost-purposeful movements.

Automatism
Automatic and apparently undirected nonpurposeful behavior that is not consciously controlled. Seen in psychomotor epilepsy.

Autonepiophilia
A paraphilia of the stigmatic/eligibilic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to, and contingent on impersonating a baby in diapers and being treated as one by the partner. Autonepiophilia may be adjunctive to masochistic discipline and humiliation. The reciprocal paraphilic condition, namely having an infant as sexuoerotic partner, is nepiophilia.

Autonomic failure
Malfunction of the autonomic nervous system due to imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of that sector of the nervous system.

Autonomic nervous system
Pertaining to that part of the nervous system that regulates usually "involuntary" reactions, especially those concerned with nutritive, vascular, glandular, and reproductive organs. These ganglia and nerves traverse the body in large part parallel to and outside the vertebral column, which encases the spinal cord (sympathetic or lumbosacral portion) and through fibers emerging with the cranial nerves and pituitary gland, and lower segments of the spinal cord (parasympathetic or craniosacral portion).

Autonomy, patient
The right of patients to make decisions about their medical care without their health care provider trying to influence the decision. Patient autonomy does allow for health care providers to educate the patient but does not allow the health care provider to make the decision for the patient.

Autophilia
The condition in which love and lust are not attached to a partner but to the self

Autophobia
An abnormal and persistent fear of loneliness, of being alone. A fear of solitude. Sufferers from autophobia may experience anxiety even though they realize that being alone does not threaten their well-being. They may worry about being ignored and unloved, or they may worry about intruders, strange noises or the possibility of developing a medical problem.

Autoplastic
Referring to adaptation by changing the self.

Autopsy
A postmortem examination. Also called a necropsy.

Autoradiography
A technique using X- ray film to visualize molecules or fragments of molecules that have been radioactively labeled. Autoradiography has many applications in the laboratory. Autoradiography can, for example, be used to analyze the length and number of DNA fragments after they are separated from one another by a method called gel electrophoresis.

Autosexual
Characterized by self-sex contact, usually as a genital act (masturbation), with or without an accompanying erotic fantasy or ritual; or, rarely, as a long-term sexuoerotic status without a partner.

Autosomal
"Pertaining to a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; relating to any one of the chromosomes save the sex chromosomes. People normally have 22 pairs of autosomes (44 autosomes) in each cell together with two sex chromosomes (X and Y in the male and XX in the female). "

Autosomal chromosome
Any chromosome except for the sex chromosomes. Humans have 44 autosomal chromosomes, or autosomes.

Autosomal dominant
A pattern of inheritance in which an affected individual has one copy of a mutant gene and one normal gene on a pair of autosomal chromosomes. (In contrast, autosomal recessive diseases require that the individual have two copies of the mutant gene.) Individuals with autosomal dominant diseases have a 50-50 chance of passing the mutant gene and therefore the disorder onto each of their children. Examples of autosomal dominant diseases include Huntington disease, neurofibromatosis, and polycystic kidney disease.

Autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia
A degenerative disorder of nerves with progressive spasticity of the legs. Abbreviated as AD-HSP. Spasticity is a state of increased muscle tone. Paraplegia refers to the legs (quadriplegia refers to both the arms and legs). In hereditary spastic paraplegia there is an insidiously progressive condition characterized by weakness beginning in the feet and lower legs. There is stiffness of the legs in walking due to the spasticity. Autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia can result from changes in a number of different genes. Each gene is autosomal (on an nonsex chromosome) and dominant (capable of causing the disease by itself).

Autosomal dominant radial drusen
See: Malattia leventinese.

Autosomal recessive
A genetic condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of an autosomal gene, one copy from each parent. The gene is on an autosome, a nonsex chromosome. The parents are carriers who have only one copy of the gene and do not exhibit the trait because the gene is recessive to its normal counterpart gene.

Autosome
A chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. In other words, any one of the chromosomes save the sex chromosomes. People normally have 22 pairs of autosomes in every cell (together with two sex chromosomes -- an X and a Y in the male and two Xs in the female -- for a total of 46 chromosomes).

Autotopagnosia
Inability to localize and name the parts of one's own body. finger agnosia would be autotopagnosia restricted to the fingers.

Autotransplant
Tissue transplanted from one part of the body to another in the same individual. Also called an autograft.

Autotransplantation
The process of transplanting tissue from one part of the body to another in the same individual. The transplanted tissue is termed an autotransplant or an autograft. Ovarian autotransplantation has been done to the upper arm to protect the ovary while the patient had radiotherapy to the abdomen.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Antigen receptor
The specific antigen-binding receptor on T or B lymphocytes; these receptors are transcribed and translated from rearrangements of V genes.

Antigenic determinant
A single antigenic site or epitope on a complex antigenic molecule or particle.

Antigen processing
Large molecules are broken down (processed) within macrophages into peptides and presented within the groove of MHC molecules.

Atopy
A term used by allergists to describe IgE-mediated anaphylactic responses in humans, usually genetically determined.

Autograft
A tissue transplant from one area to another on a single individual.

Autoimmunity

Autoallergy
An immune response to "self" tissues or components. Such an immune response may have pathological consequences leading to autoimmune diseases.

Avidity
The summation of multiple affinities, for example when a polyvalent antibody binds to a polyvalent antigen.

Alternate pathway
The mechanism of complement activation that does not involve activation of the C1, C4, C2 pathway by antigen-antibody complexes, and begins with the activation of C3.

Alternative pathway
The mechanism of complement activation that does not involve activation of the C1, C4, C2 pathway by antigen-antibody complexes, and begins with the activation of C3.

Algiderm
Calcium alginate gel with ability absorb 20 times its own weight in exudate.

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