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  Association



Association

   1. In dysmorphology (the study of birth defects), the nonrandom occurrence in two or more individuals of a pattern of multiple anomalies (birth defects) not known to be a malformation syndrome (such as Down syndrome), a malformation sequence (of events) or what is called a polytopic field defect (in which all of the defects are concentrated in one particular area of the body). An example of an association in dysmorphology is the VACTERL association of birth defects. 2. In genetics, the occurrence together of two or more characteristics more often than would be expected by chance alone. An example of association involves a feature on the surface of white blood cells called HLA (HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen). A particular HLA type, HLA type B-27, is associated with an increased risk for a number of diseases including ankylosing spondylitis. The extent of the association is enormous. Ankylosing spondylitis is 87 times more likely to occur in people with HLA B-27 than in the general population.

RELATED TERMS
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Anomalies
Birth defects; abnormalities.

Malformation
Abnormal or anomalous formation or structure; deformity.

Syndrome
A grouping of signs and symptoms, based on their frequent co-occurrence, that may suggest a common underlying pathogenesis, course, familial pattern, or treatment selection.

Association
1. In dysmorphology (the study of birth defects), the nonrandom occurrence in two or more individuals of a pattern of multiple anomalies (birth defects) not known to be a malformation syndrome (such as Down syndrome), a malformation sequence (of events) or what is called a polytopic field defect (in which all of the defects are concentrated in one particular area of the body). An example of an association in dysmorphology is the VACTERL association of birth defects. 2. In genetics, the occurrence together of two or more characteristics more often than would be expected by chance alone. An example of association involves a feature on the surface of white blood cells called HLA (HLA stands for human leukocyte antigen). A particular HLA type, HLA type B-27, is associated with an increased risk for a number of diseases including ankylosing spondylitis. The extent of the association is enormous. Ankylosing spondylitis is 87 times more likely to occur in people with HLA B-27 than in the general population.

Genetics
The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other organisms. So, for example, there is human genetics, mouse genetics, fruitfly genetics, etc.

Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Leukocyte
White blood cell.

Risk
In clinical trials, the probability of harm or discomfort for subjects, arising from the test product. Acceptable risk differs depending on the condition for which a product is being tested. A product for sore throat, for example, will be expected to have a low incidence of side effects. However, unpleasant side effects may be an acceptable risk when testing a promising treatment for a life-threatening illness.

Diseases
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.

Ankylosing
Undergoing ankylosis (stiffening or fusion of a joint).

Spondylitis
Inflammation of the vertebrae.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Associated Clinical Lab
The Associated Clinical Lab is a hospital in Erie, Pennsylvania, United States.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Assistant, physician (PA)
A physician assistant (PA) is a mid-level medical practitioner who works under the supervision of a licensed doctor (an MD) or osteopathic physician (a DO).

Assisted living
A type of long-term care facility for elderly or disabled people who are able to get around on their own but who may need help with some activities of daily living, or simply prefer the convenience of having their meals in a central cafeteria and having nursing staff on call.

Assisted suicide
The deliberate hastening of death by a terminally ill patient with assistance from a doctor, family member, or another individual.

Assistive device
Any device that is designed, made, or adapted to assist a person perform a particular task. For examples, canes, crutches, walkers, wheel chairs, and shower chairs are all assistive devices.

Assistive technology
"This term may be used to mean an assistive device, but more commonly denotes some kind of electronic or computerized device that helps a disabled person to function more easily in the world. Examples of assistive technology include devices that allow people to control a computer with the mouth, keyboards that can ""speak"" for mute individuals, and closed captioning systems that help the hearing impaired enjoy television shows and videos."

Association

AST
1. Aspartate aminotransferase, an enzyme normally present in liver and heart cells. AST is released into blood when the liver or heart is damaged. The blood AST levels are thus elevated with liver damage (for example, from viral hepatitis) or with an insult to the heart (for example, from a heart attack). Some medications can also raise AST levels. AST is also known as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). 2. Androgen suppression therapy. See: Androgen suppression.

Astatic seizure
See: Atonic seizure.

Asthenia
Weakness. Lack of energy and strength. Loss of strength. The word asthenia is not much used in medicine today, although it is a prominent part of myasthenia, a loss of muscle strength, as in myasthenia gravis.

Asthenic
1. Weak. Lacking in strength. 2. Having a slender light body. Ectomorphic. See also: Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome .

Asthma susceptibility gene
One of the genes that predisposes a person to asthma. A new gene family that plays a major role in asthma susceptibility has been identified. This gene family located at chromosome 5q23-35 is called Tim or Tapr. It controls the development of airway hyperreactivity (and the T cell production of interleukin 4 and 13). TIM-1 is also the receptor of the hepatitis A virus. This may explain the fact that hepatitis A virus infection decreases the chance asthma will develop.

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