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    Inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness, and resulting from infection, trauma, degenerative changes, metabolic disturbances, or other causes. Arthritis occurs in various forms, such as the arthritis associated with infections, osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis. Many forms of vasculitis can also be associated with arthritis.


A reaction to an injury to the body - by infection, chemicals or physical agents. The symptoms can be - depending on the location of the injury- redness, swelling, heat and pain. The purpose of the inflammation is to dilute and destroy the agent causing the inflammation. To do this, the immune system starts a cascade of actions that causes active cells to gather at the affected location. It is these cells and fluids that cause the redness, swelling, heat and pain.

Where the ends of two or more bones meet.

An unpleasant sensory or emotional experience primarily associated with tissue damage, or described in terms of tissue damage, or both.


Injury caused by external force, chemical, temperature extremes, or poor tooth alignment.

Inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness, and resulting from infection, trauma, degenerative changes, metabolic disturbances, or other causes. Arthritis occurs in various forms, such as the arthritis associated with infections, osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis. Many forms of vasculitis can also be associated with arthritis.

A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the developing, maintaining, and handling of forms and records.

Degenerative disorder of joints, most often from disease in the spine and in the weight bearing joints (knees and hips). Normally seen with aging, but can occur prematurely due to various reasons, for instance after an injury to a joint. Also known as degenerative joint disease, it can cause joint pain, loss of function, reduced joint motion, and deformity.

Inflammation throughout the body of the blood vessels.


See: Arthro-.

Joint pain. There may not be any outward evidence of a joint abnormality.

The plural of 'arthritis'.

Arthritis in children
Arthritis in children, usually in the form in the form of juvenile arthritis (also called pediatric arthritis) or rheumatoid arthritis.

Arthritis mutilans
An extremely destructive form of arthritis. The term is usually applied to a very severe form of psoriatic arthritis.

Arthritis treatment
A particular set of medical interventions and actions aimed at treating arthritis.

Arthritis, degenerative
A type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of the cartilage of the joints. Also called osteoarthritis.

Arthritis, gout
"Joint inflammation caused by uric acid crystal deposits in the joint space. An attack is usually extremely painful. The uric acid crystals are deposited in the joint fluid (synovial fluid) and joint lining (synovial lining). Intense joint inflammation occurs as white blood cells engulf the uric acid crystals, causing pain, heat, and redness of the joint tissues. The term ""gout"" commonly is used to refer to these painful arthritis attacks but gouty arthritis is only one manifestation of gout."

Arthritis, Lyme
Inflammation of the joints associated with Lyme disease, a bacterial disease spread by ticks.

Arthritis, psoriatic
Joint inflammation associated with psoriasis.

Arthritis, quackery
"Like many people with chronic ailments, sufferers from arthritis are potentially vulnerable to proponents of ""cure-all"" treatments which are promoted as having great benefits, but in reality have no right to such claims."

Arthritis, Reiter
The combination of inflammation of the joints (arthritis), eyes (conjunctivitis), and GU (genitourinary) and/or GI (gastrointestinal) systems

Arthritis, rheumatoid
Autoimmune disease that is characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints and can cause inflammation of tissues in other areas of the body (such as the lungs, heart, and eyes).

Arthritis, spondylitis
A form of arthritis causing chronic inflammation of the spine.

A prefix meaning joint, as in arthropathy and arthroscopic. Before a vowel, it becomes arthr-, as in arthralgia and arthritis. From the Greek word arthron for joint. Ultimately from an Indo-European root meaning to join or to fit together.

Needle puncture of a joint.

The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells.

Procedure to fuse a joint.

Joint contractures that develop before birth (prenatally) and are evident at birth (congenitally). A newborn with arthrogryposis lacks the normal range of motion in one or more joints.

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC)
A disorder that develops before birth (prenatal), is present at birth (congenital), and is characterized by reduced mobility of many (multiple) joints. In AMC the range of motion of the joints in the arms and legs is usually limited or fixed. Joints affected may include the shoulders, elbows, wrists and fingers and the hips, knees, ankles, and feet -- virtually any and all joints.

A calculous deposit within a joint.

Joint disorder - can be arthritis or any other kind of joint problem.

Procedure to alter a joint - it may refer to excision or replacement.

A thin flexible fiberoptic scope which is introduced into a joint space through a small incision in order to carry out diagnostic and treatment procedures within the joint. An arthroscope is about the diameter of a drinking straw. It is fitted with a miniature camera, a light source and precision tools at the end of flexible tubes. An arthroscope can be used not only for diagnostic procedures but a wide range of surgical repairs, such as debridement, or cleaning, of a joint to remove bits of torn cartilage, ligament reconstruction, and synovectomy (removal of the joint lining). All are done without a major, invasive operation, and, since arthroscopy requires only tiny incisions, many procedures can be done on an outpatient basis with local anesthetic.

"Refers to a surgical technique whereby a doctor inserts a tube-like instrument into a joint to inspect, diagnose and repair tissues. It is most commonly performed in patients with diseases of the knees or shoulders. The word arthroscopic is often confused with orthoscopic. Orthoscopic means having correct vision or producing it. Orthoscopic, in other words, means free from optical distortion or designed to correct distorted vision. This fits with the prefix ""ortho-"", meaning straight or erect, and with ""-scopic"" from the Greek ""skopein"", to see. Orthoscopic literally is to see straight. Knee surgery performed with a small scope is arthroscopic knee surgery, not orthoscopic knee surgery."

Inspection o the interior of a joint - usually using a fiberoptic instrument (Arthroscope).

Term used to refer to osteoarthritis - has largely fallen out of favour.

Arthrotec is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): diclofenac sodium; misoprostol.

Surgical procedure to open a joint - e.g. to drain pus from an infected joint.

Arthur R. Gould Memorial Hospital
The Arthur R. Gould Memorial Hospital is a hospital in Presque Isle, Maine, United States.


A medical condition where the immune system cannot function properly and protect the body from disease. As a result, the body cannot defend itself against infections (like pneumonia). Aids is caused by the Human Immunodifiency Virus (HIV). This virus is spread through direct contact with the blood and body fluids of an infected individual. High-risk activities include unprotected sexual intercourse and intravenous drug use (sharing needles). There is no cure for AIDS; however, research efforts are on going to develop a vaccine.

Anal cancer
Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix.It is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of death among cancers in the Western world. Many colorectal cancers are thought to arise from polyps in the colon. These mushroom-like growths are usually benign, but some may develop into cancer over time. Diagnosis is by colonoscopy. Therapy is usually through surgery, with many cases also requiring chemotherapy.

A recurring pain or discomfort in the chest that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood. It is a common symptom of coronary heart disease, which occurs when vessels that carry blood to the heart become narrowed and blocked due to atherosclerosis. Angina feels like a pressing or squeezing pain, usually in the chest under the breast bone, but sometimes in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaws, or back. Angina is usually is brought on by exertion, and relieved within a few minutes by resting or by taking prescribed angina medicine. Commonly called chest pain, heart pain or angina pectoris.

A nervous system tumor that grows from astrocytes (astrocytomas are a type of glial cell, glial cells are the supporting cells of the nervous system). They can occur in children and young adults and sometimes in older people. Astrocytomas can sometimes become large before causing symptoms. A diagnosis is made either after surgical resection or with a guided (stereotactic) biopsy. Treatment can consist of surgical excision, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients with minimal symptoms may be observed with serial imaging studies.

A collection of pus collected in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (bullet wounds etc). It is a defensive reaction of the tissue to prevent the spread of infectious materials to the other parts of the body.


Also known as arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis results from the accumulation of cholesterol-laden plaque in artery walls. Plaque accumulation causes a narrowing and a loss of elasticity of the arteries, sometimes referred to as hardening of the arteries.

A major defense mounted by the body's immune system against normally harmless substances, or allergens, such as chemicals in pollen, food, bee stings, animal dander, or dust. An allergic reaction is the body's strong reaction to these substances in a person who is sensitive to them. Reactions range from mild to severe, and may include sneezing, a rash, or difficulty breathing (which can be fatal).

Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. As a surgical measure, it is used to control pain or a disease process in the affected limb, such as malignancy or gangrene.

Ataxia is unsteady and clumsy motion of the limbs or trunk due to a failure of the fine coordination of muscle movements. The cerebellum is the center of the fine coordination of muscle movements, while the information emerging from it is carried to the muscles by the spinal cord and peripheral nerves, respectively. Therefore a disorder in either the spinal cord or in the peripheral nerves can cause ataxia.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and controversial mental disorders among children, and is increasingly recognized as afflicting adults as well. Its symptoms include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

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