Arteries
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  Arteries



Arteries

   Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the arms, legs, head, body and organs.

RELATED TERMS
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Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Heart
The hollow, muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system.

Arms
An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Artemidorus
"Artemidorus of Daldis. Greek physician who wrote Oneirocritica, a work dedicated to the interpretation of dreams, in the middle of the second century C.E. Artemidorus gathered evidence during interviews with thousands of people about their dreams. While his work has often been dismissed as mere divination, the careful study of dreams by modern psychiatrists has brought them back into the realm of scientific observation. ""In later antiquity Artemidorus of Daldis was regarded as the greatest authority on dream-interpretation ..."" (Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams)"

Artemisinin
An antimalarial agent extracted from the dry leaves of the Chinese herb Artemsisia annua (qinghaosu or sweet wormwood). This plant is grown each year starting from seed and only yields artemesinin under specific agricultural and climatological conditions. Wormwood is cultivated only in China, Vietnam and pilot projects in Tanzania and India. It takes eight months to mature.

Artemsisia annua
A Chinese herb (qinghaosu or sweet wormwood) from which is extracted the antimalarial agent artemisinin.

Arteria femoralis
See: Femoral artery.

Arterial aneurysm
"An outpouching (aneurysm) of an artery. As opposed to a venous or cardiac aneurysm. An aneurysm is a localized widening (dilatation) of an artery, vein, or the heart. At the area of an aneurysm, there is typically a bulge and the wall is weakened and may rupture. The word ""aneurysm"" comes from the Greek ""aneurysma"" meaning ""a widening."""

Arterial blood gas
ABG. The sampling of the blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the arteries, as opposed to the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in venous blood. Typically, the acidity, or pH, of the blood is measured simultaneously in ABG sampling.

Arterial blood gas (ABG)
The sampling of the blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the arteries, as opposed to the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in venous blood. Typically the acidity, or pH, of the blood is measured simultaneously with the gas levels in ABG sampling.

Arterial Grafting
In patients who require coronary artery bypass graft surgery, it is sometimes desirable to use arteries from other parts of the body to provide the bypass grafts. This is known as arterial grafting. The alternative is to use vein grafts for coronary bypass surgery.

Arterial tension
The pressure of the blood within an artery, the arterial pressure. Also called the intra-arterial pressure.

Arteries, coronary
The vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood rich in oxygen. They are called the coronary arteries because they encircle the heart in the manner of a crown.

Arteriogram
An x-ray of blood vessels, which becomes visible after an injection of contrast solution into the circulation that appears on the x-ray film.

Arteriohepatic dysplasia
Also known as Alagille syndrome, this ia a genetic disorder characterized by jaundice in the newborn period, liver disease with cholestasis, peripheral pulmonic stenosis and unusual face. Children with Alagille syndrome usually present with jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes) in the newborn period. Cholestasis (stagnant flow of bile from the liver) then develops with puritis (itching), stools without the usual yellowing brown color, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Peripheral pulmonic stenosis is a form of congenital heart disease (CHD). Other types of CHD also occur. The face has deep-set eyes, broad forehead, long nose with flat tip, prominence of the chin, and low-set or malformed ears. The outlook depends upon the degree of severity of the CHD and the liver disease (it can cause liver failure). The condition is an autosomal dominant trait meaning that the gene for it is on a non-sex chromosome (an autosome) and a single edition of the Alagille gene is sufficient to produce the disease.

Arteriole
A small branch of an artery (a vessel that carries blood high in oxygen away from the heart to the body) leading to a capillary. The oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) makes the blood in arteries and arterioles look bright red.

Arteriosclerosis
Commonly called "hardening of the arteries;" a variety of conditions caused by fatty or calcium deposits in the artery walls causing them to thicken.

Arteriosclerosis ("hardening of the arteries")
The process whereby abnormal deposits of lipids, cholesterol and plaque build up, leading to narrowing or blockage in arteries taking blood to the hand, foot head or vital organs. Also called atherosclerosis.

Arteriosclerotic aneurysm
A localized widening (aneurysm) of a vessel that occurs because the vessel wall is weakened by arteriosclerosis. An aneurysm is a localized widening (dilatation) of an artery, vein, or the heart. At the area of an aneurysm, there is typically a bulge and the wall is weakened and may rupture.

Arteriosclerotic retinopathy
"Retinal disease caused by arteriosclerosis. In this condition, the arterioles (small arteries) in the retina become partially blocked because of thickening of their walls. Using an ophthalmoscope, a doctor can see the thickened arterioles and other indications of diminished blood supply to the retina. (The characteristic features include narrowed tortuous arterioles with a ""copper wire"" appearance, scattered small hemorrhages and sharp-edged deposits with no edema around them.) As a general rule, arteriosclerotic retinopathy does not damage vision, although it is a danger signal that the blood vessels in the body are arteriosclerotic and that steps are badly needed to prevent the progression of the disease process."

Arteriovenous
Of, relating to, or connecting both arteries and veins.

Arteriovenous malformation
Abnormal group of dilated blood vessels, most often occurring in the brain.

Arteritides
Inflammation of an artery.

Arteritis
Inflammation of blood vessels (arteries). Causes problems in the organs or tissues supplied by those arteries.

Arteritis, cranial
" A serious disease characterized by inflammation of the walls of the blood vessels (vasculitis). The vessels affected are the arteries (hence the name ""arteritis""). The age of affected patients is usually over 50 years of age. Cranial arteritis is also known as temporal arteritis and as giant cell arteritis. It can lead to blindness and/or stroke. The disease is detected by a biopsy of an artery. It is treated with high dose cortisone-related medications."

Arteritis, giant cell
A chronic vascular disease, most often involving the carotid artery system, that can lead to blindness and/or stroke, Giant cell arteritis (also called temporal arteritis) is detected by a biopsy of an artery, and is treated with high dose cortisone.

Arteritis, Takayasu
See: Takayasu disease.

Arteritis, temporal
"Also called giant cell arteritis or cranial arteritis, this is a serious disease characterized by inflammation of the walls of the blood vessels (vasculitis). The vessels affected by inflammation are the arteries (hence the name ""arteritis""). The age of affected patients is usually over 50 years of age. Giant cell arteritis can lead to blindness and/or stroke. It is detected by a biopsy of an artery. It is treated with high dose cortisone."

Artery
A blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body.

Artery disease, coronary
See: Coronary artery disease.

Artery spasm, coronary
See: Coronary artery spasm.

Artery, brachial
See: Brachial artery.

Artery, carotid
See: Carotid artery.

Artery, central retinal
The blood vessel that carries blood into the eye and supplies nutrition to the retina. The counterpart to the central retinal artery is the central retinal vein, the vessel that carries blood away from the retina.

Artery, femoral
See: Femoral artery.

Artery, hepatic
An artery that distributes blood to the liver, pancreas and gallbladder as well as to the stomach and duodenal portion of the small intestine.

Artery, mesenteric
One of the arteries that arises from the abdominal portion of the aorta and distributes blood to most of the intestines.

Artery, ophthalmic
The ophthalmic artery supplies blood to the eye and adjacent structures of face. It arises from the internal carotid artery that courses up deep within the front of the neck.

Artery, pulmonary
See: Pulmonary artery.

Artery, splenic
A large artery within the abdomen that arises from an arterial vessel called the celiac trunk, which emerges from the aorta. The splenic artery supplies blood not only to the spleen, but also to the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, liver, and pancreas.

Artery, vertebral
A key artery located in the back of the neck that carries blood from the heart to the brain.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Aortic Valve
The aortic valve is the last valve through which the blood passes before it enters the aorta or main blood vessel of the body. The valve prevents blood from leaking back into the left ventricle from the aorta after it has been ejected from the heart.

Aortic Valve Replacement
When the aortic valve is diseased, it can become either stenotic (too narrow) or insufficient (leaky). In such cases, the aortic valve may need to be replaced with either a prosthetic or human valve.

Aortic Valve Homograft
When replacement of an aortic valve is necessary it is possible to replace the valve with another human valve known as an aortic valve homograft. This operation involves cardiopulmonary bypass

Aortic Valve Repair
The aortic valve is the last valve in the heart through which the blood travels prior to circulating in the body. When this valve is leaking or too tight, the surgeon may be able to repair the valve rather than replace it.

Arterial Grafting
In patients who require coronary artery bypass graft surgery, it is sometimes desirable to use arteries from other parts of the body to provide the bypass grafts. This is known as arterial grafting. The alternative is to use vein grafts for coronary bypass surgery.

Arteries

Arteriosclerosis ("hardening of the arteries")
The process whereby abnormal deposits of lipids, cholesterol and plaque build up, leading to narrowing or blockage in arteries taking blood to the hand, foot head or vital organs. Also called atherosclerosis.

Ascending Aorta Replacement
The aorta is the main blood vessel that leaves the heart to provide blood flow to the rest of the body. When the ascending or first part of the aorta is diseased, it sometimes needs to be replaced. The replacement is most often done with a synthetic cloth tube.

Atherectomy (Directional Coronary Atherectomy or DCA)
The DCA catheter has a hollow cylinder on the tip with an open window on one side and a balloon on the other. When the catheter is inserted into the narrowed artery, the balloon is inflated, pushing the window against the fatty matter clogging the vessel. A blade (cutter) within the cylinder rotates and shaves off any fat, which protruded into the window. The shavings are caught in a chamber within the catheter and removed. This process is repeated as needed to allow better blood flow.

Atheroma:
Large build-up of fat, cholesterol and other substances on the walls of an artery, causing narrowing. Also called plaque.

Atrial fibrillation (AF)
Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart rhythm in which many impulses begin and spread through the atria. The resulting rhythm is disorganized, rapid and irregular and the atria are not able to fully empty their contents into the ventricles.

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