Arms
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  Arms



Arms

   An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

RELATED TERMS
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Anatomy
The study of form. Gross anatomy involves structures that can be seen with the naked eye. It is as opposed to microscopic anatomy (or histology) which involves structures seen under the microscope.

Clinical
That which can be observed in patients. Research that uses patients to test new treatments, as opposed to laboratory testing or research in animals.

Arm
"1. In popular usage, the appendage that extends from the shoulder to the hand. However, the medical definition refers to the upper extremity extending from the shoulder only to the elbow, excluding the forearm, which extends from the elbow to the wrist. The arm contains one bone: the humerus. 2. In a randomized clinical trial, any of the treatment groups. Most randomized trials have two ""arms,"" but some have three ""arms,"" or even more."



SIMILAR TERMS
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Aristolochic acid
"A chemical found in nature in the plant Aristolochia fangchi. Aristolochic acid is contained in a number of botanical products sold as ""traditional medicines"" or as dietary supplements or weight-loss remedies. The use of products containing aristolochic acid can cause permanent kidney damage, including end-stage kidney failure requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. In addition, aristolochic acid can cause cancer, most often in the urinary tract, specifically transitional cell carcinoma (urothelial carcinoma). In sum, aristolochic acid is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic; it is toxic to the kidney and causes cancer."

ARM (abr)
Abbreviation of age-related maculopathy, any pathologic condition of the macula, the small spot in the retina where vision is keenest. The late stages of ARM are also referred to as age-related macular degeneration.

Arm
"1. In popular usage, the appendage that extends from the shoulder to the hand. However, the medical definition refers to the upper extremity extending from the shoulder only to the elbow, excluding the forearm, which extends from the elbow to the wrist. The arm contains one bone: the humerus. 2. In a randomized clinical trial, any of the treatment groups. Most randomized trials have two ""arms,"" but some have three ""arms,"" or even more."

ARMD
Age-related macular degeneration (which may also be abbreviated as AMD).

Armed tapeworm
Taenia solium.

Arms

Aromasin
Brand name of exemestane, an oral antiestrogen. Aromasin inhibits the enzyme aromatase in the adrenal glands that produces the estrogens (estradiol and estrone) and thereby lowers their levels. See also: Aromatase inhibitor.

Aromatase
An enzyme involved in the production of estrogen that acts by catalyzing the conversion of testosterone (an androgen) to estradiol (an estrogen). Aromatase is located in estrogen-producing cells in the adrenal glands, ovaries, placenta, testicles, adipose (fat) tissue, and brain. The growth of some breast cancers is promoted by estrogens. For example, the drug letrozole (brand name: Femara) is an antiestrogen sometimes used to treat such estrogen-dependent tumors. The drug acts by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase which lowers the level of the estrogen, estradiol.

Aromatase inhibitor
A drug that inhibits the enzyme aromatase and by that means lowers the level of the estrogen estradiol. Aromatase inhibitors represent a class of antiestrogens.

Aromatherapy
"A form of alternative medicine based on the use of very concentrated ""essential"" oils from the flowers, leaves, bark, branches, rind or roots of plants with purported healing properties."

Arrayed library
In genetics, an arrayed library consists of (in technical terms) individual primary recombinant clones which are hosted in phage, cosmid, YAC, or another vector that have been placed in two- dimensional arrays in microtiter dishes (plastic dishes with an orderly array of tiny wells). Each primary clone can be identified by the identity of the plate and the clone location (row and column) on that plate. Arrayed libraries of clones are used for many purposes, including screening for a specific gene or genomic region. The information gathered on individual clones from genetic linkage and physical map studies is then entered into a database and used to construct physical and genetic linkage maps.

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