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   "1. In popular usage, the appendage that extends from the shoulder to the hand. However, the medical definition refers to the upper extremity extending from the shoulder only to the elbow, excluding the forearm, which extends from the elbow to the wrist. The arm contains one bone: the humerus. 2. In a randomized clinical trial, any of the treatment groups. Most randomized trials have two ""arms,"" but some have three ""arms,"" or even more."


The ball-and-socket joint connecting the arm with the body.

Pertaining to Medicine.

The extremities in medical language are not freezing cold or scorching heat but rather the uttermost parts of the body. The extremities are simply the hands and feet.

The juncture of the long bones in the middle portion of the arm. The bone of the upper arm (humerus) meets both the ulna (the inner bone of the forearm) and radius (the outer bone of the forearm) to form a hinge joint at the elbow. The radius and ulna also meet one another in the elbow to permit a small amount of rotation of the forearm. The elbow therefore functions to move the arm like a hinge (forward and backward) and in rotation (outward and inward). The biceps muscle is the major muscle that flexes the elbow hinge, and the triceps muscle is the major muscle that extends it. The primary stability of the elbow is provided by the ulnar collateral ligament, located on the medial (inner) side of the elbow. The outer bony prominence of the elbow is the lateral epicondyle, a part of the humerus bone. Tendons attached to this area can be injured, causing inflammation or tendonitis (lateral epicondylitis, or tennis elbow). The inner portion of the elbow is a bony prominence called the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Additional tendons from muscles attach here and can be injured, likewise causing inflammation or tendonitis (medial epicondylitis, or golfer's elbow).

The portion of the upper limb from the elbow to the wrist. In popular usage, the arm extends from the shoulder to the hand. However, in medical terminology, the arm refers to the upper extremity extending from the shoulder only to the elbow. The arm is thus distinguished in medical usage from the forearm, which extends from the elbow to the wrist.The forearm has 2 bones: the radius and ulna.

The joint or part of the arm between the hand and the forearm.

Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.

The bone in the upper arm.

That which can be observed in patients. Research that uses patients to test new treatments, as opposed to laboratory testing or research in animals.



Silver poisoning resulting in ashen gray discolored skin (and other tissues of the body). Due to long-term use of silver salts.

Brand name for anastrozole, an oral antiestrogen. Arimidex inhibits the enzyme aromatase in the adrenal glands that produces the estrogens (estradiol and estrone) and thereby lowers their levels.

Aristolochia fangchi
A Chinese herb that is injurious to the kidney and is also associated with an increased risk of cancer of the urinary system.

Aristolochic acid
"A chemical found in nature in the plant Aristolochia fangchi. Aristolochic acid is contained in a number of botanical products sold as ""traditional medicines"" or as dietary supplements or weight-loss remedies. The use of products containing aristolochic acid can cause permanent kidney damage, including end-stage kidney failure requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. In addition, aristolochic acid can cause cancer, most often in the urinary tract, specifically transitional cell carcinoma (urothelial carcinoma). In sum, aristolochic acid is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic; it is toxic to the kidney and causes cancer."

ARM (abr)
Abbreviation of age-related maculopathy, any pathologic condition of the macula, the small spot in the retina where vision is keenest. The late stages of ARM are also referred to as age-related macular degeneration.


Age-related macular degeneration (which may also be abbreviated as AMD).

Armed tapeworm
Taenia solium.

An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Brand name of exemestane, an oral antiestrogen. Aromasin inhibits the enzyme aromatase in the adrenal glands that produces the estrogens (estradiol and estrone) and thereby lowers their levels. See also: Aromatase inhibitor.

An enzyme involved in the production of estrogen that acts by catalyzing the conversion of testosterone (an androgen) to estradiol (an estrogen). Aromatase is located in estrogen-producing cells in the adrenal glands, ovaries, placenta, testicles, adipose (fat) tissue, and brain. The growth of some breast cancers is promoted by estrogens. For example, the drug letrozole (brand name: Femara) is an antiestrogen sometimes used to treat such estrogen-dependent tumors. The drug acts by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase which lowers the level of the estrogen, estradiol.

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