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   Birth defects; abnormalities.


Anomalad, Klippel-Feil
See: Klippel-Feil sequence.

Anomalous Coronary Artery
The normal anatomy for the coronary arteries involves their origin from the aorta at each of two separate sites. Sometimes people can be born with the origin of a coronary artery that comes from an abnormal site and this can lead to problems of coronary ischemia which can subsequently lead to heart attack. Not all coronary anomalies need surgery, but some do and the specific operation depends on which of the many varieties of coronary anomalies is present.

Deviation from normal.

Anomaly, congenital
A birth defect. A malformation that occurs before birth and is present at birth.

Anomaly, Klippel-Feil
See: Klippel-Feil sequence.

A problem with word finding. Impaired recall of words with no impairment of comprehension or the capacity to repeat the words.

Anomic aphasia
Loss of the ability to name objects.

Apathy, alienation, and personal distress resulting from the loss of goals previously valued. Emile Durkheim popularized this term when he listed it as a principal reason for suicide.


Aldose Reductase
An enzyme that is normally present in the eye and in many other parts of the body. It changes glucose (sugar) into a sugar alcohol called sorbitol. Too much sorbitol trapped in eye and nerve cells seems to damage these cells, and may be part of the cause of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy. There are medications that interfere with aldose reductase.

Alpha Cell
A type of cell in the pancreas (in areas called the islets of Langerhans). Alpha cells make and release a hormone called glucagon, which raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

Alternate Site Testing
Using parts of the body other than the finger tips to obtain blood for blood glucose testing.

A type of diabetic neuropathy that causes muscle weakness and wasting.


Antidiabetic Agent
A substance that helps a person with diabetes control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood so that the body works as it should.

Substances that cause an immune response in the body. The body "sees" the antigens as harmful or foreign. To fight them, the body produces antibodies, which attack and try to eliminate the antigens.

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome
A group of autoimmune disorders that involve endocrine glands and which result in failure of the glands to produce their hormones. (Also called autoimmune endocrine failure syndrome, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, and immunoendocrinopathy syndrome.)

Air abrasion uses a process where pressurized air prepares a cavity with the use of fine, non-toxic abrasive powder (aluminum oxide) instead of using a conventional drill. Air abrasion is quiet and faster than a drill. Anesthetic is not necessary so multiple teeth can be worked on during one visit. Air abrasion can only be used on small cavities. It cannot be used for crowns or cavities between teeth. A tooth colored filling is used to fill the preparation.

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