Angina
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  Angina



Angina

    A recurring pain or discomfort in the chest that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood. It is a common symptom of coronary heart disease, which occurs when vessels that carry blood to the heart become narrowed and blocked due to atherosclerosis. Angina feels like a pressing or squeezing pain, usually in the chest under the breast bone, but sometimes in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaws, or back. Angina is usually is brought on by exertion, and relieved within a few minutes by resting or by taking prescribed angina medicine. Commonly called chest pain, heart pain or angina pectoris.

RELATED TERMS
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Pain
An unpleasant sensory or emotional experience primarily associated with tissue damage, or described in terms of tissue damage, or both.

Chest
The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains the lungs, the heart and part of the aorta. The walls of the chest are supported by the dorsal vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum.

Heart
The hollow, muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system.

Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Symptom
A subjective manifestation of a pathological condition. Symptoms are reported by the affected individual rather than observed by the examiner.

Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

Atherosclerosis
Also known as arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis results from the accumulation of cholesterol-laden plaque in artery walls. Plaque accumulation causes a narrowing and a loss of elasticity of the arteries, sometimes referred to as hardening of the arteries.

Angina
A recurring pain or discomfort in the chest that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood. It is a common symptom of coronary heart disease, which occurs when vessels that carry blood to the heart become narrowed and blocked due to atherosclerosis. Angina feels like a pressing or squeezing pain, usually in the chest under the breast bone, but sometimes in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaws, or back. Angina is usually is brought on by exertion, and relieved within a few minutes by resting or by taking prescribed angina medicine. Commonly called chest pain, heart pain or angina pectoris.

Breast
The breast refers to the front of the chest or, more specifically, to the mammary gland. The mammary gland is a milk producing gland. It is composed largely of fat. Within the mammary gland is a complex network of branching ducts. These ducts exit from sac-like structures called lobules, which can produce milk in females. The ducts exit the breast at the nipple.

Bone
Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.

Arms
An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Exertion
Expenditure of energy by skeletal muscles. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of oxygen consumption, heat produced, or heart rate. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Angiitis
See: Vasculitis.

Angiitis, allergic granulomatous
See: Churg-Strauss syndrome.

Angina (also called angina pectoris)
Discomfort or pressure, usually in the chest, caused by a temporarily inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. Discomfort may also be felt in the neck, jaw or arms. A common symptom of coronary artery disease, angina usually occurs during periods of physical or emotional stress and is relieved by rest.

Angina pectoris
Also called angina. Recurring chest pain or discomfort that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood.

Angina trachealis
This has nothing whatsoever to do with the usual type of angina (angina pectoris) which is chest pain of cardiac origin. Angina trachealis is more commonly known as croup. This is an infection of the larynx, trachea, and the bronchial tubes, that occurs mainly in children. It is usually caused by viruses, less often by bacteria. Symptoms include a cough that sounds like a barking seal and a harsh crowing sound during inhaling.

Angina, exudative
This has nothing whatsoever to do with the usual type of angina (angina pectoris) which is chest pain of cardiac origin. Angina trachealis is more commonly known as croup.

Angina, Prinzmetal
Chest pain due to a coronary artery spasm, a sudden constriction of one of the vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood rich in oxygen. This deprives the heart muscle of blood and oxygen. Coronary artery spasm can be triggered by emotional stress, medicines, street drugs (cocaine) or exposure to cold. Treatments include beta-blocker medications and, classically, nitroglycerin to open up the coronary arteries.

Angina, variant
Chest pain due to coronary artery spasm, a sudden constriction of a coronary artery (one of the vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood rich in oxygen) depriving the heart muscle (myocardium) of blood and oxygen. This is also called Prinzmetal angina. Coronary artery spasm can be triggered by emotional stress, medicines, street drugs (cocaine) or exposure to cold. Treatments include beta- blocker medications and, classically, nitroglycerin to permit the coronary arteries to open up (dilate).

Angina, Vincent
This is trench mouth, a progressive painful infection with ulceration, swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from the mouth and throat due to the spread of infection from the gums. Certain germs (including fusiform bacteria and spirochetes) have been thought to be involved, but the full story behind this long-known disease is still not clear.

Angio-conray
Angio-conray is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): iothalamate sodium.

Angiodysplasia
Abnormal or enlarged blood vessels in the gastrointestinal tract.

Angioedema
Like hives but affects deeper skin layer.

Angiogenesis
The process of developing new blood vessels. Angiogenesis is important in the normal development of the embryo and fetus. It also appears important to tumor formation. Certain proteins, including angiostatin and endostatin, secreted by tumors work (at least in mice) by interfering with the blood supply tumors need. Angiostatin is a piece of a larger and very common protein, plasminogen, that the body uses in blood clotting. Endostatin is a piece of a different protein, collagen 18, that is in all blood vessels.

Angiogram
An x-ray of blood vessels which can be seen because the patient receives an injection of dye to outline the vessels on the x-ray.

Angiography
An x-ray that uses dye to detect bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.

Angiography, coronary
"The most accurate method (the ""gold standard"") for evaluating and defining coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary angiography is used to identify the exact location and severity of CAD. "

Angiography, fluorescein
A test to examine blood vessels in the retina, choroid, and iris of the eye. A special dye is injected into a vein in the arm and pictures are taken as the dye passes through the blood vessels in the eye.

Angiohemophilia
See: Von Willebrand disease.

Angioid Streaks


Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum universale
See: Fabry disease.

Angioma
A noncancerous tumor made up of many blood vessels.

Angiomatosis, bacillary
A bacterial infection due to a cat scratch most often seen today in people with HIV. The disease characteristically presents with swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), sore throat, fatigue, and fever, chills, sweats, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. There is usually a little bump (a papule) which may be pus-filled (a pustule) at the site of the scratch. Then more nodules appear on and under the skin. As the number of nodules increases, patients get sicker.

Angiomax
Angiomax is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): bivalirudin.

Angiomyxoma, aggressive
A slow-growing tumor of stromal cells which occurs primarily in the genital and pelvic regions. This tumor is much more common in women. It can range from relatively small tumors to football-size masses in the pelvis. The histologic appearance of the tumor under the microscope is rather distinctive.

Angiopathy
Disease of the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). There are two basic types of angiopathy: microangiopathy and macroangiopathy.

Angioplasty
A non-surgical procedure for treating diseased arteries.

Angiosarcoma
A type of cancer that begins in the lining of blood vessels. This type of tumor tends to be aggressive, recur locally, and spread widely. It can originate anywhere in the body but is well known to arise in skin, soft tissue, liver, breast, spleen, bone, lung and heart. Factors predisposing to angiosarcoma include chronic lymphedema (as from a radical mastectomy), radiotherapy, foreign materials (such as Dacron, shrapnel, steel, and plastic) in the body, and environmental agents (such arsenic solutions used to spray grapevines, the radiation-emitting contrast agent Thorotrast, and vinyl chloride in the plastic industry).

Angiostatin
Angiostatin is a piece (a fragment) of a protein, plasminogen, used normally in blood clotting. This fragment is normally secreted by tumors. It appears to halt the process of developing new blood vessels (angiogenesis) which is necessary to tumor development. Angiostatin may, it is hoped, represent a prototype for a new class of agents with which to treat cancer.

Angiostrongylus infection
Also called angiostrongyliasis. See: Angiostrongyliasis.

Angiotensin
A family of peptides (smaller than proteins) that act as vasoconstrictors to narrow blood vessels.

Angiotensin converting enzyme
Usually abbreviated ACE.

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2
An enzyme, abbreviated ACE2, that is an essential regulator of heart function. It may also be involved in the embryonic development of the heart. ACE2 was discovered in 2000. The gene for it has been mapped to the X chromosome (band Xp22).

Angiotensin II receptor blocker
A medication that blocks the action of angiotensin II, permitting the blood vessels to relax and dilate (widen), which lowers the blood pressure. Abbreviated ARB.

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
A class of medicines used to treat high blood pressure.

Angiotensin receptor blocker
See: Angiotensin II receptor blocker.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE)
A medication that lowers blood pressure.

Angiotension-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE inhibitors)
A group of drugs used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. ACE inhibitors block a specific enzyme (ACE or angiotensin-converting enzyme) which retains salt in the kidney and can cause heart and blood pressure problems.

Angiovist 282
Angiovist 282 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): diatrizoate meglumine.

Angiovist 292
Angiovist 292 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): diatrizoate meglumine; diatrizoate sodium.

Angiovist 370
Angiovist 370 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): diatrizoate meglumine; diatrizoate sodium.

Angiscein
A medicine for ophthalmic angiography and angioscopy.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Acne
Is a common inflammatory disease of the facial skin seen most frequently between the ages of 10 and 25 years and characterized by blackheads, whiteheads and blemishes composed of papules and pustules. Acne is an inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands, the glands that produce sebum. Acne usually affects the face, back, and chest. In severe cases it can develop into cysts and nodules that can result in scarring. While its cause is unknown, it is most often associated with hormonal activity within teenagers. In severe cases a person should consult with a dermatologist for a specific acne treatment.

Anxiety
A psychological and/or biological response to stress. Feelings of anxiety involve discomforting apprehension or concern, which may include symptoms such as cognitive difficulties, hypersensitivity, dizziness, muscular weakness, breathing difficulties, irregular heart beat, sweating, and sensations of fear. Typically, anxiety is a natural and healthy response to life experiences. However, exaggerated or chronic anxiety often indicates an anxiety disorder. Anxiety can be produced by external stress (exogenous anxiety) or internal stress (endogenous anxiety).

Adrenocortical carcinoma
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a carcinoma of the cortex (outer layer) of the adrenal gland. While most tumors of the adrenal cortex are benign (adenomas) and only occasionally cause Cushing's syndrome, the malignant form makes up about 3% of all cortical tumors and requires surgery and sometimes chemotherapy. Excess cortisol production may require suppression with ketoconazole or metyrapone. Production of aldosterone or androgens by carcinomas is extremely rare.

AIDS
A medical condition where the immune system cannot function properly and protect the body from disease. As a result, the body cannot defend itself against infections (like pneumonia). Aids is caused by the Human Immunodifiency Virus (HIV). This virus is spread through direct contact with the blood and body fluids of an infected individual. High-risk activities include unprotected sexual intercourse and intravenous drug use (sharing needles). There is no cure for AIDS; however, research efforts are on going to develop a vaccine.

Anal cancer
Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix.It is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of death among cancers in the Western world. Many colorectal cancers are thought to arise from polyps in the colon. These mushroom-like growths are usually benign, but some may develop into cancer over time. Diagnosis is by colonoscopy. Therapy is usually through surgery, with many cases also requiring chemotherapy.

Angina

Astrocytoma
A nervous system tumor that grows from astrocytes (astrocytomas are a type of glial cell, glial cells are the supporting cells of the nervous system). They can occur in children and young adults and sometimes in older people. Astrocytomas can sometimes become large before causing symptoms. A diagnosis is made either after surgical resection or with a guided (stereotactic) biopsy. Treatment can consist of surgical excision, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients with minimal symptoms may be observed with serial imaging studies.

Abscesses
A collection of pus collected in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (bullet wounds etc). It is a defensive reaction of the tissue to prevent the spread of infectious materials to the other parts of the body.

Arthritis
Inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness, and resulting from infection, trauma, degenerative changes, metabolic disturbances, or other causes. Arthritis occurs in various forms, such as the arthritis associated with infections, osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis. Many forms of vasculitis can also be associated with arthritis.

Atherosclerosis
Also known as arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis results from the accumulation of cholesterol-laden plaque in artery walls. Plaque accumulation causes a narrowing and a loss of elasticity of the arteries, sometimes referred to as hardening of the arteries.

Allergy
A major defense mounted by the body's immune system against normally harmless substances, or allergens, such as chemicals in pollen, food, bee stings, animal dander, or dust. An allergic reaction is the body's strong reaction to these substances in a person who is sensitive to them. Reactions range from mild to severe, and may include sneezing, a rash, or difficulty breathing (which can be fatal).

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