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    An agent that causes loss of sensation with or without the loss of consciousness.


Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.


Anestacon is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): lidocaine hydrochloride.

Partial or complete elimination of pain sensation; numbing a tooth is an example of local anesthesia; general anesthesia produces partial or complete unconsciousness.

Depending on the type of treatment a patient is to receive, a dentist may recommend some type of dental anesthesia. Local anesthesia involves the numbing of the teeth and gums. Topical anesthetic may be used to help make the injection more tolerable. Most dental work falls under this type of anesthesia (i.e., fillings, crowns, root canals and gum surgery) and may cause the patient to feel a temporary numbness. Nitrous Oxide or "laughing gas" may be used in combination with local anesthetics or alone if the patient cannot tolerate a local injection. Nitrous Oxide is an anti-anxiety agent that helps relax both children and adults. Patients wear a mask to breathe in the nitrous air. The effects soon dissipate once the nitrous is turned off and the patient begins to breathe oxygen through the mask. There are very few known side effects with Nitrous Oxide. General anesthesia is used during more complex procedures or for those that experience a high level of anxiety and wish to be asleep during the treatment. An anesthesiologist or a dentist who has received special training administers general anesthesia. Sometimes oral medications are used to relieve dental pain or anxiety. These analgesics may be used in combination with the above types of anesthesia or alone to help relieve post treatment discomfort.

Anesthesia awareness
The situation that occurs when a patient under general anesthesia becomes aware of some or all events during surgery or a procedure, and has direct recall of those events. Because of the routine use of neuromuscular blocking agents (also called paralytics) during general anesthesia, the patient is often unable to communicate with the surgical team if this occurs.

Anesthesia, caudal epidural
See Caudal anesthesia.

A physician or, less often, a dentist who is specialized in the practice of anesthesiology, the branch of medicine involving the use of drugs or other agents that cause insensibility to pain. There is a major distinction between an anesthesiologist and an anesthetist. An anesthesiologist has a doctorate whereas an anesthetist does not. An anesthetist is a nurse or technician trained to administer anesthetics.

The medical study and application of pain-killing medication.

Anesthetic, epidural
An anesthetic injected into the epidural space surrounding the fluid-filled sac (the dura) around the spine which partially numbs the abdomen and legs.

Anesthetic, general
An anesthetic that puts the person to sleep.

Anesthetic, local
An anesthetic that causes loss of feeling in a small part of the body.

"1. In the US, a nurse or technician trained to administer anesthetics.


Anal fissure
A small tear in the anus that may cause itching, pain, or bleeding.

Anal fistula
A channel that develops between the anus and the skin. Most fistulas are the result of an abscess (infection) that spreads to the skin.

An operation to connect two body parts. An example is an operation in which a part of the colon is removed and the two remaining ends are rejoined.

1. Concerned with anatomy. 2. Concerned with dissection. 3. Related to the structure of an organism.

The medical study and application of pain-killing medication.


Angina pectoris
Also called angina. Recurring chest pain or discomfort that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood.

Abnormal or enlarged blood vessels in the gastrointestinal tract.

An x-ray that uses dye to detect bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.

A non-surgical procedure for treating diseased arteries.

Failure of the ovaries to produce or release mature eggs.

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