Amplification
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  Amplification



Amplification

   "Making multiple copies of a gene or of any sequence of DNA. Repeated copying of a piece of DNA. In amplification there is an increase in the number of copies of any particular piece of DNA. Gene amplification plays a role in cancer cells. A tumor cell amplifies, or copies, DNA segments as a result of cell signals and sometimes environmental events. Amplification can occur in vivo (in the living individual) or in vitro (literally ""in glass"", or in a plastic vessel in the laboratory). "

RELATED TERMS
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Gene
1. A unit of DNA that carries information for the biosynthesis of a specific product in the cell. 2. Ultimate unit by which inheritable characteristics are transmitted to succeeding generations in all living organisms. Genes are contained by, and arranged along the length of, the chromosome. The gene is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Each chromosome of each species has a definite number and arrangement of genes, which govern both the structure and metabolic functions of the cells and thus of the entire organism.

DNA
Deoxyribo-Nucleic acid. DNA molecules carry the genetic information necessary for the organization and functioning of most living cells and control the inheritance of characteristics.

Amplification
"Making multiple copies of a gene or of any sequence of DNA. Repeated copying of a piece of DNA. In amplification there is an increase in the number of copies of any particular piece of DNA. Gene amplification plays a role in cancer cells. A tumor cell amplifies, or copies, DNA segments as a result of cell signals and sometimes environmental events. Amplification can occur in vivo (in the living individual) or in vitro (literally ""in glass"", or in a plastic vessel in the laboratory). "

Cancer
Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream.

Tumor
Overgrowth of tissue.

Cell
Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Amplification, DNA
"The production of multiple copies of a sequence of DNA. Repeated copying of a piece of DNA. DNA amplification plays a role in cancer cells. A tumor cell amplifies, or copies, DNA segments as a result of cell signals and sometimes environmental events. Amplification can occur in vivo (in the living individual) or in vitro (literally ""in glass"", or in a plastic vessel in the laboratory)."



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Amniotic sac
Popularly and more commonly known as the bag of waters. See: Bag of waters.

Amoeba
"Also ameba. A single-celled (protozoan) organism that constantly changes shape. The word ""ameba"" is from the Greek ""amoibe"" meaning ""change."" Ameba can infect the bowels to cause diarrhea and the liver to cause abscess formation. "

Amoxicillin
An antibiotic of the penicillin type that is effective against different bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Escherichia coli, Pneumococci, Streptococci, and certain strains of Staphylococci, particularly infections of the middle ear, tonsillitis, throat infections, laryngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Amoxicillin is also used in treating urinary tract infections, skin infections, and gonorrhea. The brand names are Amoxil, Polymox, and Trimox. A generic version is available.

Amoxil
See: Amoxicillin.

Amphetamine
"A drug with a stimulant effect on the central nervous system that can be both physically and psychologically addictive when overused. This drug has been much abused recreationally. The street term ""speed"" refers to stimulant drugs such as amphetamine."

Amplification

Amplification, DNA
"The production of multiple copies of a sequence of DNA. Repeated copying of a piece of DNA. DNA amplification plays a role in cancer cells. A tumor cell amplifies, or copies, DNA segments as a result of cell signals and sometimes environmental events. Amplification can occur in vivo (in the living individual) or in vitro (literally ""in glass"", or in a plastic vessel in the laboratory)."

Ampulla
In anatomy, a sac-like enlargement of a canal or duct. The ampulla of Vater is the enlargement of the ducts from the liver and pancreas at the point where they enter the small intestine. Ampulla in Latin means flask. An ampulla was a flask used in ancient Rome to hold ointment, perfume, and wine.

Ampulla of Vater
An enlargement of the ducts from the liver and pancreas at the point where they enter the small intestine. Bile from the liver and secretions from the pancreas come through the ampulla of Vater to mix with food in the duodenum and aid digestion.

Ampullary carcinoma
"Cancer of a structure called the ampulla of Vater, a small muscle located at the junction where the common bile duct (carrying bile from the liver and secretions from the pancreas) empties into the duodenum (upper small intestine). Because of its location, this cancer can cause obstruction of the common bile duct and prevent bile from flowing into the intestine and out of the body. The chemicals usually eliminated from the body in bile - in particular, bilirubin -- accumulate in the blood and cause jaundice (yellow skin and eyes) and itching. The stool becomes light-colored and the urine dark-colored since the accumulating bilirubin (which is yellow to dark brown) is eliminated in the urine instead of the stool. The treatment is surgical removal of the cancer. There is no effective chemotherapy for ampullary cancer. The cause of ampullary carcinoma is unknown. Fortunately, it is rather rare.

AMS (acute mountain sickness)
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is the effect on the body of being in a high altitude environment. AMS is common at high altitudes, that is above 8,000 feet (2,440 meters). Three-quarters of people have mild symptoms of AMS over 10,000 feet (3,048 meters). The occurrence of AMS depends on the altitude, the rate of ascent, and individual susceptibility.

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