Ammonia
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  Ammonia



Ammonia

   colorless gas with a very sharp odor. Made both by humans and by nature, ammonia dissolves easily in water and evaporates quickly. Liquid ammonia is found in many household cleaners. Ammonia is irritating to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Exposure to high concentrations in the air can severely burn the skin, eyes, throat, or lungs. In extreme cases, blindness, lung damage, or death can occur. Breathing lower concentrations causes coughing and nose and throat irritation. Swallowing ammonia may burn the mouth, throat, and stomach. The amount of ammonia produced by humans every year is almost equal to that produced by nature every year. Ammonia is produced naturally in soil by bacteria, decaying plants and animals, and animal wastes. Ammonia is essential for many biological processes. Most of the ammonia produced in chemical factories is used to make fertilizers. The remaining is used in textiles, plastics, explosives, pulp and paper production, food and beverages, household cleaning products, refrigerants, and other products. It is also used in smelling salts.

RELATED TERMS
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Ammonia
colorless gas with a very sharp odor. Made both by humans and by nature, ammonia dissolves easily in water and evaporates quickly. Liquid ammonia is found in many household cleaners. Ammonia is irritating to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Exposure to high concentrations in the air can severely burn the skin, eyes, throat, or lungs. In extreme cases, blindness, lung damage, or death can occur. Breathing lower concentrations causes coughing and nose and throat irritation. Swallowing ammonia may burn the mouth, throat, and stomach. The amount of ammonia produced by humans every year is almost equal to that produced by nature every year. Ammonia is produced naturally in soil by bacteria, decaying plants and animals, and animal wastes. Ammonia is essential for many biological processes. Most of the ammonia produced in chemical factories is used to make fertilizers. The remaining is used in textiles, plastics, explosives, pulp and paper production, food and beverages, household cleaning products, refrigerants, and other products. It is also used in smelling salts.

Household
Size and composition of the family.

Skin
Skin is an organ of the integumentary system; which is composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. Skin is used for insulation, vitamin D production, sensation, and excretion (through sweat).

Lungs
The main respiratory organs in the chest where blood is oxygenated.

Concentrations
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.

Burn
Damage to the skin or other body parts caused by extreme heat, flame, contact with heated objects, or chemicals. Burn depth is generally categorized as first, second, or third degree. The treatment of burns depends on the depth, area, and location of the burn, as well as additional factors, such as material that may be burned onto or into the skin. Treatment options range from simply applying a cold pack to emergency treatment to skin grafts.

Blindness
Legal blindness is defined as: 1) visual acuity of 20/200 (only being able to see the big E on the eye chart) or less in the best eye even with the eyes corrected by glasses or contact lenses; or, 2) The peripheral visual field is reduced to 20 degrees of visual angle or less. Twenty degrees of visual angle is about the size of a one foot ruler held at arms length.

Death
1. The end of life. The cessation of life. (These common definitions of death ultimately depend upon the definition of life, upon which there is no consensus.) 2. The permanent cessation of all vital bodily functions. (This definition depends upon the definition of "vital bodily functions.") See: Vital bodily functions. 3. The common law standard for determining death is the cessation of all vital functions, traditionally demonstrated by "an absence of spontaneous respiratory and cardiac functions." 4. The uniform determination of death.

Breathing
The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through the mouth or nose due to muscle contraction, and then exhaled due to muscle relaxation.

Stomach
The organ between the esophagus and the small intestine. The stomach is where digestion of protein begins.

Bacteria
Single-celled microorganisms which can exist either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites (dependent upon another organism for life).

Essential
1. Something that cannot be done without. 2. Required in the diet, because the body cannot make it. As in an essential amino acid or an essential fatty acid. 3. Idiopathic. As in essential hypertension.

Fertilizers
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.

Pulp
The nerves, blood vessels and connective tissue inside a tooth.

Food
Any substance eaten to provide nutritional support for the body.

Cleaning
Removal of plaque and calculus (tarter) from teeth, generally above the gum line.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Ammonium chloride
Ammonium chloride is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ammonium chloride.

Ammonium chloride 0.9 per cent in normal saline
Ammonium chloride 0.9 per cent in normal saline is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ammonium chloride .

Ammonium chloride 2.14 per cent
Ammonium chloride 2.14 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ammonium chloride.

Ammonium chloride in plastic container
Ammonium chloride in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ammonium chloride.

Ammonium lactate
Ammonium lactate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ammonium lactate.

Ammonium perchlorate
See: Perchlorate.

Ammonul
Ammonul is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): sodium benzoate; sodium phenylacetate.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Amino acid, nonessential
An amino acid that can be made by humans and so is not essential to the human diet. There are 11 nonessential amino acids: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.

Amino acids
The building blocks of polypeptides and proteins.

Aminotransferase
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from a donor molecule to a recipient molecule. The donor molecule is usually an amino acid while the recipient (acceptor) molecule is usually an alpha-2 keto acid. An aminotransferase is also called a transaminase. Two of the better known enzymes in this class are serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Both of these transaminases (SGOT and SGPT) are normally found primarily in cells in the liver and heart, are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage, and so are used as liver and heart tests.

AML
Acute myeloid leukemia (also known as acute myelogenous leukemia), a quickly progressive malignant disease in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow, the cells being specifically those destined to give rise to the granulocytes or monocytes, both types of white blood cells that fight infections. In AML, these blasts do not mature and so become too numerous. AML can occur in adults or children. Acute myeloid leukemia is also known as acute myelogenous leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL).

AML1
Acute myeloid leukemia 1 gene. See: Runx-1.

Ammonia

Ammonium perchlorate
See: Perchlorate.

Amnesia, antegrade
See: Antegrade amnesia.

Amnesia, anterograde
See: Antegrade amnesia.

Amnesia, retrograde
See: Retrograde amnesia.

Amnesia, transient global
See: Transient global amnesia.

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