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   Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.


Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the immune system goes awry and attacks the body itself. Autoimmunity is present to some extent in everyone and is usually harmless. However, autoimmunity can cause a broad range of human illnesses, known collectively as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases occur when there is progression from benign autoimmunity to pathogenic autoimmunity. This progression is determined by genetic influences as well as environmental triggers. Autoimmunity is evidenced by the presence of autoantibodies (antibodies directed against the person who produced them) and T cells that are reactive with host antigens.

A grouping of signs and symptoms, based on their frequent co-occurrence, that may suggest a common underlying pathogenesis, course, familial pattern, or treatment selection.



Alpha-galactosidase A deficiency
See: Fabry disease.

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor
A class of oral medications for type 2 diabetes that decrease the absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine, resulting in a slower and lower rise in blood glucose throughout the day, especially right after meals. Before carbohydrates are absorbed from food, they must be broken down into smaller sugar particles like glucose by enzymes in the small intestine. One of the enzymes involved in breaking down carbohydrates is called alpha glucosidase. By inhibiting this enzyme, carbohydrates are not broken down as efficiently and glucose absorption is delayed. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors include Precose (acarbose) and Glyset (miglitol).

Alpha-linolenic acid
An essential fatty acid found in flaxseed oil, canola oil and walnuts. Abbreviated ALA.

One in a family of structurally related proteins that are prominently expressed in the central nervous system. Aggregated alpha-synuclein proteins form brain lesions that are hallmarks of some neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies). The gene for alpha-synuclein, which is called SNCA, is on chromosome 4q21. One form of hereditary Parkinson disease is due to mutations in SNCA. Another form of hereditary Parkinson disease is due to a triplication of SNCA. See also: Parkinson disease gene.

Alport syndrome
An hereditary condition characterized by kidney disease, sensorineural (nerve) deafness and sometimes eye defects.


See: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1.

See: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2.

See: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 3.

See: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4.

See: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 5.

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