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   "Step-by-step procedure for solving a mathematical problem; also used to describe step-by-step procedures for making a series of choices among alternative decisions to reach an outcome."


Algodystrophic Syndrome
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)

A painful disorder in which there is evidence of overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system with trophic changes in skin.

Fear of pain.

A drug that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is the sodium sulfonate of AMINOPYRINE. Because of the risk of serious adverse effects its use is justified only in serious situations where no alternative is available or suitable. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p13)

A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.


The study and testing of hearing, and the provision of hearing aids.

Audiometric tests
The testing of hearing with an audiometer, whereby hearing impairments can be measured.

Activities of daily living (ADL)
The basic elements of personal care such as eating, washing and showering, grooming, walking, standing up from a chair and using the toilet. Instrumental ADL (IADLs) activities extend to non-personal care items

Admission criteria
Basis for selecting from the target population for a clinical trial. Subjects must be screened to ensure that their characteristics match a list of inclusion criteria and that none of their characteristics match any single one of the exclusion criteria set up for the study

Adverse event (AE)
Any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with this treatment. An adverse event (AE) can therefore be any unfavourable and unintended sign (including an abnormal laboratory finding), symptom, or disease temporally associated with the use of a medicinal (investigational) product, whether or not related to the medicinal (investigational) product. See also serious adverse event.


Alpha error
(statistics) See Type 1 error.

Alternative hypothesis.
The opposite of a null hypothesis. See null hypothesis, research hypothesis.

Atrial fibrillation
Rapid, irregular contractions of the heart muscle fibres.

Audit (of a clinical trial)
A systematic and independent examination of trial-related activities and documents to determine whether the evaluated trial-related activities were conducted, and the data were recorded, analysed and accurately reported according to the protocol, standard operating procedures (SOPs), good clinical practice (GCP), and the applicable regulatory requirements.

Audit certificate
Document that certifies that an audit has taken place at a site undertaking clinical research.

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