Albinism
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  Albinism



Albinism

    A hereditary condition in which darker pigment fails to form in the eye, hair and skin. In ocular albinism, visual acuity ranges from 20/40 to 20/200 (legal blindness), the eyes may dance (nystagmus) and the person is very sensitive to sunlight. No treatment is available, except dark sunglasses for the photophobia.

RELATED TERMS
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Hereditary
Transmitted from parent to offspring; derived from ancestry.

Condition
The term "condition" has a number of biomedical meanings including the following: 1.An unhealthy state, such as in "this is a progressive condition." 2.A state of fitness, such as "getting into condition." 3.Something that is essential to the occurrence of something else; essentially a "precondition." 4.As a verb: to cause a change in something so that a response that was previously associated with a certain stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus; to condition a person, as in behavioral conditioning.

Eye
The organ of sight. The eye has a number of components. These components include but are not limited to the cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, macula, optic nerve, choroid and vitreous.

Hair
A modification of the epidermis found on almost every surface of the body except the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and the glans penis. It is a filament of KERATIN consisting of a shaft, a root, and a point.

Skin
Skin is an organ of the integumentary system; which is composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. Skin is used for insulation, vitamin D production, sensation, and excretion (through sweat).

Ocular
Having to do with the eye.

Albinism
A hereditary condition in which darker pigment fails to form in the eye, hair and skin. In ocular albinism, visual acuity ranges from 20/40 to 20/200 (legal blindness), the eyes may dance (nystagmus) and the person is very sensitive to sunlight. No treatment is available, except dark sunglasses for the photophobia.

Acuity
The highest spatial frequency rsolvable with a grating of unity contrast (i.e. the maximum possibly contrast).

Photophobia
Severe discomfort to bright lights. Usually a symptom of eye disease, such as glaucoma, in an infant or retinal disease in a child or adult. Sometimes treated with dark sunglasses.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Albinism and hemorrhagic diathesis
See: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

Albinism, Ocular
Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.

Albinism, oculocutaneous
An hereditary disorder characterized by deficiency of the pigment melanin in the eyes, skin and hair. The lack of eye pigment causes photophobia (sensitivity to light), nystagmus, and decreased visual acuity. Oculocutaneous albinism is conventionally classified as to whether it is tyrosinase-negative or tyrosinase-positive. In the tyrosinase-negative class, there is absence of the enzyme tyrosinase. In the tyrosinase-positive class, tyrosinase is present but it cannot enter pigment cells to do its job and make melanin.

Albinism, Yellow-Mutant
Heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprising at least four recognized types, all having in common varying degrees of hypopigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. The two most common are the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative types.

Albino
A person with albinism.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Anorexia


Accommodation
In younger people, under age 40, the lens is adjusted by the ciliary muscles to focus clearly for near as well as far vision. With age the lens is less able to change, eventually requiring reading glasses or bifocals for close work.

Achromatopsia
Characterized by a lack of color vision with poor visual acuity, nystagmus, and sensitivity to sunlight. No treatment is available except, for example, sunglasses for the sensitivity to light.

Age Related Macular Degeneration


Albinism

Angioid Streaks


Aniridia
A hereditary eye problem in which the iris, the colored part of the eye, is absent. There is poor vision, sensitivity to sunlight, nystagmus, and a tendency to develop glaucoma.

Anisocoria
A difference in the size of the two pupils. It is present in about 5% of normal children. The most serious cause of an acquired Anisocoria follows a head injury with some brain or nerve damage; a disease such as a tumor also causes it.

Anisometropia
A difference in the focusing power of the two eyes. One of the major causes of amblyopia; the brain is not able to clearly focus both eyes simultaneously. This is a "hidden" cause of amblyopia and very difficult to detect without an eye exam.

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