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    Drug that increases neurotransmitter activity by stimulating the dopamine receptors directly.


Specialized chemical messenger (eg, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin) that sends a message from one nerve cell to another. Most neurotransmitters play different roles throughout the body, many of which are not yet known.

A neurotransmitter that works in an axis with serotonin.

Areas on the outer part of a cell that allow the cell to join or bind with insulin that is in the blood.


Agonist maintenance treatment
See: Methadone treatment program.

Agonist medication
A chemical entity that is not naturally occuring within the body which acts upon a receptor and is capable of producing the maximal effect that can be produced by stimulating that receptor. A partial agonist is capable only of producing less than the maximal effect even when given in a concentration sufficient to bind with all available receptors.

Agonist, 5-Hydroxytrytamine
Agents that have an affinity for serotonin receptors and are able to mimic the effects of serotonin by stimulating the physiologic activity at the cell receptors. These compounds are used as antidepressants, anxiolytics, and in the treatment of migraine.

Agonist, Dopamine Receptor
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.

Agonist, Glutamate
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.

Agonist, Histamine H2
Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.

Agonist, LHRH
"A compound that is similar to LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) in structure and is able to it performs its action(s). Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone is a naturally occurring hormone that controls sex hormones in both men and women. Thus, an LHRH agonist serves in a manner similar to LHRH to control the same sex hormones. An agonist achieves a normal action, often mimicking the action of a naturally occurring substance. The word ""agonist"" comes from the Late Latin agnista, contender, from the Greek agnists, contestant, from agn, contest. An agonist is a chemical contestant."

Agonist, Muscarinic Cholinergic
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.

Agonist, Myeloablative
Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for bone marrow or stem cell transplantation.

Agonist, Nicotinic Cholinergic
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.

Agonist-antagonist medication
A chemical entity that is not naturally occuring within the body which acts on a family of receptors (such as mu, delta, and kappa opiate receptors) in such a fashion that it is an agonist or partial agonist on one type of receptor while at the same time it is also an antagonist on another different receptor.

Agonistic Behaviors
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.


Attending physician
The doctor who is primarily responsible for a patient's care.

Action tremor
A tremor that increases when the hand is moving voluntarily.

Activities of Daily Living. Personal care activities necessary for everyday living, such as eating, bathing, grooming, dressing, and toileting; a term often used by healthcare professionals to assess the need and/or type of care a person may require.

Advance directives
Documents (such as a Living Will) completed and signed by a person who is legally competent to explain his or her wishes for medical care should he or she become unable to make those decisions at a later time.

A non-specific symptom of one or more physical, or psychological processes in which vocal or motor behavior (screaming, shouting, complaining, moaning, cursing, pacing, fidgeting, wandering) pose risk or discomfort, become disruptive or unsafe, or interfere with the delivery of care in a particular environment.


No movement.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. A terminal neurological disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of motor cells in the spinal cord and brain. It is often referred to as "Lou Gehrig's disease."

Slow, involuntary movements of the hands and feet.

Slow, involuntary movements of the hands and feet.

Loss of tooth structure caused by a hard toothbrush, poor brushing technique, or Bruxism (grinding or clenching the teeth).

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