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    A measure of the binding constant of a single antigen combining site with a monovalent antigenic determinant.


A substance which, when present in animal tissue, stimulates the production of antibodies


Affiliations, Organizational
Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.

Affinities, Antibody
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of ""avidity,"" which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.

Affinity Chromatography
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Affinity Labeling Reagents
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.

Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including radioactive isotopes and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies, and antigens. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.


Addiction treatment
A set of medical actions aiming to reduce and reverse addiction.

Arthritis treatment
A particular set of medical interventions and actions aimed at treating arthritis.

Alcohol treatment
A set of medically controlled actions and interventions addressed to tackling a patient's addiction to alcohol.

Anxiety treatment
A set of medical actions aimed at controlling and fighting anxiety.

Accessory cell
Cell required for, but not actually mediating, a specific immune response. Often used to describe antigen-presenting cells (APC; see below).


The aggregation of particulate antigen by antibodies. Agglutination applies to red blood cells as well as to bacteria and inert particles covered with antigen.

Relating to one of a series of two or more alternate forms of a gene that occupy the same position or locus on a specific chromosome.

Allelic exclusion
The ability of heterozygous lymphoid cells to produce only one allelic form of antigen-specific receptor when they have the genetic endowment to produce both. Genes other than those for the specific receptors are usually expressed codominantly.

An antigen responsible for producing allergic reactions by inducing IgE formation.

Having a genetic dissimilarity within the same species.

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