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   The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.


pertaining to the mind and its ideas and images.

An inborn drive. The primary human instincts include self-preservation, sexuality, and according to some proponents the death instinct, of which aggression is one manifestation.


This word is used to described observable behavior that represents the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion). Common examples of affect are sadness, fear, joy, and anger. The normal range of expressed affect varies considerably between different cultures and even within the same culture. Types of affect include: euthymic, irritable, constricted; blunted; flat; inappropriate, and labile.

Affective disorder, seasonal (SAD)
Depression that tends to occur (and recur) as the days grow shorter in the fall and winter. It is believed that affected persons react adversely to the decreasing amounts of light and the colder temperatures as the fall and winter progress. Seasonal affective disorder has not been recognized very long as a medical condition. The term first appeared in print in 1985. Seasonal affective disorder is also sometimes called winter depression or the hibernation reaction.

Affective disorders
Refers to disorders of mood. Examples would include Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymia, Depressive Disorder, N.O.S., Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Bipolar Disorder...

Affective Disorders
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.

Affective Disorders, Seasonal
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.

Affective Psychoses
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.

Affective Psychosis, Bipolar
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.

Affective Symptoms
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.

Heading towards. A system's afferent signals are those entering the system from elsewhere. (As opposed to Efferent)

Afferent Loop Syndromes
A complication of gastrojejunostomy, caused by acute or chronic obstruction of the afferent loop due to hernia, intussusception, kinking, volvulus, etc. It is characterized by pain and vomiting of bile-stained fluid and includes acute afferent loop obstruction.

Afferent nerve
A nerve that carries impulses toward the central nervous system (CNS). The opposite of an afferent nerve is an efferent nerve that carries impulses away from the CNS.

Afferent Neurons
Neurons which convey sensory information centrally from the periphery.

Afferent Pathways
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.

Afferent vessel
A vessel that carries blood toward the heart. A vein or venule.

Afferents, Visceral
The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.


Affinity Labeling Reagents
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.

Affinity Chromatography
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Affinities, Antibody
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of ""avidity,"" which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.

Affiliations, Organizational
Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.

Afferents, Visceral
The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.


Affective Symptoms
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.

Aflatoxin B1, (6aR-cis)-Isomer, 14C-Labeled
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.

A deficiency or absence of fibrinogen (coagulation factor I) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.

Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including radioactive isotopes and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies, and antigens. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.

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