Adenoids
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  Adenoids



Adenoids

   Glandular tissue in the back of the throat that may swell, especially during childhood, obstruct breathing and speaking, and lead to ear infections.

RELATED TERMS
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Tissue
Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function.The study of tissues is known as histology, or, in connection with disease, histopathology.The classical tools for studying the tissues are the wax block, the tissue stain, and the optical microscope, though developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and frozen sections have all added to the sum of knowledge in the last couple of decades.

Childhood
1. The time for a boy or girl from birth until he or she is an adult. 2. The more circumscribed period of time from infancy to the onset of puberty.

Breathing
The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through the mouth or nose due to muscle contraction, and then exhaled due to muscle relaxation.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Aden-
See: Adeno-.

Adena Regional Medical Center
The Adena Regional Medical Center is a hospital in Chillicothe, Ohio, United States.

Adenine
A purine base found in RNA and DNA; in double-stranded DNA adenine pairs with the pyrimidine thymine.

Adenine (A)
"One member of the A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair in DNA. The other base pair in DNA is G-C (guanine-cytosine). Each base pair forms a ""rung of the DNA ladder."" A DNA nucleotide is made of a molecule of sugar, a molecule of phosphoric acid, and a molecule called a base. The bases are the ""letters"" that spell out the genetic code. In DNA, the code letters are A, T, G, and C, which stand for the chemicals adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively. In DNA base pairing, adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine. Adenine is also one of the bases in RNA. There it always pairs with uracil (U). The base pairs in RNA are therefore A-U and G-C."

Adenine Arabinoside
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.

Adenine Arabinoside Monophosphate
An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.

Adenine Deoxyribonucleosides
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.

Adenine Nucleotide Carrier (Mitochondrial)
An abundant mitochondrial protein and integral component of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It facilitates the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartment of ATP production to those of ATP utilization. It has several known isoforms, ANT1, ANT2, & ANT3 that should not be confused with the Ant1 and Ant2 proteins that are encoded by the ant gene, which is an antirepressor gene that antagonizes the C1 repressor. EC 2.7.7.-.

Adenine Nucleotide Translocase
An abundant mitochondrial protein and integral component of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It facilitates the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartment of ATP production to those of ATP utilization. It has several known isoforms, ANT1, ANT2, & ANT3 that should not be confused with the Ant1 and Ant2 proteins that are encoded by the ant gene, which is an antirepressor gene that antagonizes the C1 repressor. EC 2.7.7.-.

Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1
An abundant mitochondrial protein and integral component of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It facilitates the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartment of ATP production to those of ATP utilization. It has several known isoforms, ANT1, ANT2, & ANT3 that should not be confused with the Ant1 and Ant2 proteins that are encoded by the ant gene, which is an antirepressor gene that antagonizes the C1 repressor. EC 2.7.7.-.

Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2
An abundant mitochondrial protein and integral component of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It facilitates the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartment of ATP production to those of ATP utilization. It has several known isoforms, ANT1, ANT2, & ANT3 that should not be confused with the Ant1 and Ant2 proteins that are encoded by the ant gene, which is an antirepressor gene that antagonizes the C1 repressor. EC 2.7.7.-.

Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3
An abundant mitochondrial protein and integral component of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It facilitates the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartment of ATP production to those of ATP utilization. It has several known isoforms, ANT1, ANT2, & ANT3 that should not be confused with the Ant1 and Ant2 proteins that are encoded by the ant gene, which is an antirepressor gene that antagonizes the C1 repressor. EC 2.7.7.-.

Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase
An enzyme catalyzing the formation of AMP from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. EC 2.4.2.7.

Adenine Polynucleotides
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.

Adenitides
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.

Adenitis
Inflammation of a gland.

Adeno Associated Virus
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.

Adeno Associated Viruses
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.

Adeno-
"Prefix referring to a gland, as in adenoma and adenopathy. From the Greek aden meaning originally ""an acorn"" and later ""a gland"" in the form of an acorn. Before a vowel, adeno- becomes aden-, as in adenitis (inflammation of a gland)."

Adeno-Associated Virus
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.

Adeno-Associated Viruses
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.

Adenocarcinoma
A cancer that develops in the lining or inner surface of an organ.

Adenocarcinoma, Alveolar
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenocarcinoma, Basal Cell
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo Alveolar
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)

Adenocarcinoma, Follicular
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenocarcinoma, Granular Cell
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenocarcinoma, Oxyphilic
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenocarcinoma, Papillary
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenocarcinoma, Renal Cell
Carcinoma of the renal parenchyma usually occurring in middle age or later and composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements.

Adenocarcinoma, Scirrhous
An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous
A malignant tumor composed of cells showing differentiation toward sebaceous epithelium. The tumor is solitary, firm, somewhat raised, more or less translucent, and covered with normal or slightly verrucose epidermis. It may be yellow or orange. The face and scalp are the commonest sites. The growth can be slow or rapid but metastasis is uncommon. Surgery cures most of the cases. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2403-4)

Adenocarcinoma, Tubular
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenocarcinomas
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenocarcinomas, Alveolar
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenocarcinomas, Basal Cell
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenocarcinomas, Bronchiolo-Alveolar
A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenocarcinomas, Clear Cell
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)

Adenocarcinomas, Follicular
An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenocarcinomas, Granular Cell
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenocarcinomas, Mucinous
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenocarcinomas, Oxyphilic
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenocarcinomas, Papillary
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenocarcinomas, Renal Cell
Carcinoma of the renal parenchyma usually occurring in middle age or later and composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements.

Adenocarcinomas, Scirrhous
An adenocarcinoma with a hard (Greek skirrhos, hard) structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenocarcinomas, Sebaceous
A malignant tumor composed of cells showing differentiation toward sebaceous epithelium. The tumor is solitary, firm, somewhat raised, more or less translucent, and covered with normal or slightly verrucose epidermis. It may be yellow or orange. The face and scalp are the commonest sites. The growth can be slow or rapid but metastasis is uncommon. Surgery cures most of the cases. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2403-4)

Adenocarcinomas, Tubular
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenocard
Adenocard is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): adenosine .

Adenofibroma
A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenofibromas
A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenohypophyseal Disease
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Adenohypophyseal Diseases
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Adenohypophyseal Hyposecretion
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.

Adenohypophyseal Hyposecretions
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.

Adenohypophyses
The glandular or anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

Adenohypophysis
The glandular or anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

Adenoid cystic carcinoma
"A type of cancer that most often develops in the salivary glands of the head and neck. It may arise in other sites such as the skin, lacrimal gland, trachea, breast, cervix and prostate. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) has a characteristic appearance under the microscope. Abnormal ""nests"" or cords of certain cells (epithelial cells) can be seen to surround or infiltrate ducts and glandular structures. These structures are typically filled with a mucous-like material or contain abnormal fibrous membranes (hyaline membranes). ACC is an unusual tumor. It is slow-growing but relentless. It tends to be locally invasive and infiltrate the ""sheaths"" or coatings surrounding nerve fibers (perineural spaces). ACC often recurs years later at the site where the tumor first arose or it may metastasize. Unlike most carcinomas, it seldom metastasizes to nearby lymph nodes but rather to distant sites. The lung is the most common site of metastasis, with the liver second. Bone metastases indicate a poor prognosis . Treatment usually involves surgery to resect (remove) the tumor. Postoperative radiotherapy may help prevent local recurrence. Chemotherapy may slow the tumor but no chemotherapy has yet been found that is effective in destroying it."

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenoid Cystic Carcinomas
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenoidectomies
Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Adenoidectomy
The surgical removal of the adenoids.

Adenoiditis
Infection of the adenoids.

Adenoids and Tonsils
"These celebrated structures in the back of the throat are composed of tissue similar to the lymph nodes or ""glands."" "

Adenolymphoma
A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.

Adenolymphomas
A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.

Adenoma
A benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form glandular structures or are derived from glandular epithelium.

Adenoma colon family history
See: Colon cancer family history.

Adenoma, Acidophil
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenoma, Acidophilic
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenoma, Adrenal Cortical
A benign neoplasm of adrenal cortical cells resembling normal adrenal cells histologically but possessing functional autonomy. In general it does not exceed 5 cm in its largest dimension, although benign tumors exceeding 20 cm have been reported. Adrenal cortical adenomas produce hypercortisolism and hyperaldosteronism, but seldom produce adrenogenital syndromes. For the most part the prognosis after surgery is reasonably favorable. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1286)

Adenoma, Adrenocortical
A benign neoplasm of adrenal cortical cells resembling normal adrenal cells histologically but possessing functional autonomy. In general it does not exceed 5 cm in its largest dimension, although benign tumors exceeding 20 cm have been reported. Adrenal cortical adenomas produce hypercortisolism and hyperaldosteronism, but seldom produce adrenogenital syndromes. For the most part the prognosis after surgery is reasonably favorable. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1286)

Adenoma, alpha Cell
Glucagon-secreting tumor of the pancreatic alpha cells characterized by a distinctive rash, weight loss, stomatitis, glossitis, diabetes, hypoaminoacidemia, and normochromic normocytic anemia.

Adenoma, alpha-Cell
Glucagon-secreting tumor of the pancreatic alpha cells characterized by a distinctive rash, weight loss, stomatitis, glossitis, diabetes, hypoaminoacidemia, and normochromic normocytic anemia.

Adenoma, Basal Cell
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenoma, Basophil
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenoma, Basophilic
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenoma, beta Cell
A tumor of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans. Although usually benign, such tumors are among the most important causes of hypoglycemia. Insulinomas usually occur in patients between the ages of 20 and 75 years, the average age being 44-46. Women are 60% of the patients in most series. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1324)

Adenoma, beta-Cell
A tumor of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans. Although usually benign, such tumors are among the most important causes of hypoglycemia. Insulinomas usually occur in patients between the ages of 20 and 75 years, the average age being 44-46. Women are 60% of the patients in most series. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1324)

Adenoma, Bile Duct
A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.

Adenoma, Chromophobe
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.

Adenoma, Eosinophil
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenoma, Eosinophilic
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenoma, Follicular
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenoma, Hepatocellular
A benign epithelial tumor of the liver.

Adenoma, Islet Cell
A benign tumor of the islets of Langerhans that may occur anywhere throughout the pancreas. Such tumors may result in HYPERINSULINISM or ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenoma, Liver Cell
A benign epithelial tumor of the liver.

Adenoma, Malignant
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenoma, Microcystic
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenoma, Monomorphic
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenoma, Oxyphilic
A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.

Adenoma, Papillary
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenoma, Pleomorphic
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenoma, PRL-Secreting Pituitary
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.

Adenoma, Prolactin-Producing Pituitary
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.

Adenoma, Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.

Adenoma, Prolactin-Secreting, Pituitary
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.

Adenoma, Prostatic
Enlargement or overgrowth of the prostate gland as a result of an increase in the number of its constituent cells.

Adenoma, Sweat Gland
A benign neoplasm derived from epithelial cells of sweat glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenoma, Trabecular
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenoma, Villous
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenomas
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenomas, Acidophil
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenomas, Acidophilic
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenomas, Adrenal Cortical
A benign neoplasm of adrenal cortical cells resembling normal adrenal cells histologically but possessing functional autonomy. In general it does not exceed 5 cm in its largest dimension, although benign tumors exceeding 20 cm have been reported. Adrenal cortical adenomas produce hypercortisolism and hyperaldosteronism, but seldom produce adrenogenital syndromes. For the most part the prognosis after surgery is reasonably favorable. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1286)

Adenomas, Adrenocortical
A benign neoplasm of adrenal cortical cells resembling normal adrenal cells histologically but possessing functional autonomy. In general it does not exceed 5 cm in its largest dimension, although benign tumors exceeding 20 cm have been reported. Adrenal cortical adenomas produce hypercortisolism and hyperaldosteronism, but seldom produce adrenogenital syndromes. For the most part the prognosis after surgery is reasonably favorable. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1286)

Adenomas, alpha-Cell
Glucagon-secreting tumor of the pancreatic alpha cells characterized by a distinctive rash, weight loss, stomatitis, glossitis, diabetes, hypoaminoacidemia, and normochromic normocytic anemia.

Adenomas, Basal Cell
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenomas, Basophil
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenomas, Basophilic
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenomas, beta-Cell
A tumor of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans. Although usually benign, such tumors are among the most important causes of hypoglycemia. Insulinomas usually occur in patients between the ages of 20 and 75 years, the average age being 44-46. Women are 60% of the patients in most series. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1324)

Adenomas, Bile Duct
A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.

Adenomas, Chromophobe
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.

Adenomas, Eosinophil
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenomas, Eosinophilic
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenomas, Follicular
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenomas, Hepatocellular
A benign epithelial tumor of the liver.

Adenomas, Islet Cell
A benign tumor of the islets of Langerhans that may occur anywhere throughout the pancreas. Such tumors may result in HYPERINSULINISM or ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenomas, Liver Cell
A benign epithelial tumor of the liver.

Adenomas, Malignant
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenomas, Microcystic
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenomas, Monomorphic
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenomas, Papillary
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenomas, Pleomorphic
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenomas, PRL-Secreting Pituitary
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.

Adenomas, Prolactin-Producing Pituitary
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.

Adenomas, Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.

Adenomas, Prostatic
Enlargement or overgrowth of the prostate gland as a result of an increase in the number of its constituent cells.

Adenomas, Sweat Gland
A benign neoplasm derived from epithelial cells of sweat glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenomas, Trabecular
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

Adenomas, Villous
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenomatoid Tumor
A small, circumscribed, benign tumor of the genital tract, composed of small glandlike spaces lined by flattened or cuboidal mesothelium-like cells. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenomatoid Tumors
A small, circumscribed, benign tumor of the genital tract, composed of small glandlike spaces lined by flattened or cuboidal mesothelium-like cells. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Adenomatoses, Bovine Pulmonary
A cattle disease of uncertain cause, probably an allergic reaction.

Adenomatoses, Familial Endocrine
A group of autosomal dominant, often overlapping diseases characterized by hyperplasia or neoplasia of more than one endocrine gland, many of which are made up of APUD cells. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Adenomatoses, Multiple Endocrine
A group of autosomal dominant, often overlapping diseases characterized by hyperplasia or neoplasia of more than one endocrine gland, many of which are made up of APUD cells. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Adenomatoses, Ovine Pulmonary
A contagious, neoplastic, pulmonary disease of sheep characterized by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pneumocytes and epithelial cells of the lung. It is caused by OVINE PULMONARY ADENOCARCINOMA VIRUS.

Adenomatoses, Pulmonary
A neoplastic disease in which the alveoli and distal bronchi are filled with mucus and mucus-secreting columnar epithelial cells. It is characterized by abundant, extremely tenacious sputum, chills, fever, cough, dyspnea, and pleuritic pain. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenomatoses, Pulmonary Ovine
A contagious, neoplastic, pulmonary disease of sheep characterized by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pneumocytes and epithelial cells of the lung. It is caused by OVINE PULMONARY ADENOCARCINOMA VIRUS.

Adenomatosis, Bovine Pulmonary
A cattle disease of uncertain cause, probably an allergic reaction.

Adenomatosis, Familial Endocrine
A group of autosomal dominant, often overlapping diseases characterized by hyperplasia or neoplasia of more than one endocrine gland, many of which are made up of APUD cells. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Adenomatosis, Multiple Endocrine
A group of autosomal dominant, often overlapping diseases characterized by hyperplasia or neoplasia of more than one endocrine gland, many of which are made up of APUD cells. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Adenomatosis, Ovine Pulmonary
A contagious, neoplastic, pulmonary disease of sheep characterized by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pneumocytes and epithelial cells of the lung. It is caused by OVINE PULMONARY ADENOCARCINOMA VIRUS.

Adenomatosis, Pulmonary
A neoplastic disease in which the alveoli and distal bronchi are filled with mucus and mucus-secreting columnar epithelial cells. It is characterized by abundant, extremely tenacious sputum, chills, fever, cough, dyspnea, and pleuritic pain. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenomatosis, Pulmonary Ovine
A contagious, neoplastic, pulmonary disease of sheep characterized by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pneumocytes and epithelial cells of the lung. It is caused by OVINE PULMONARY ADENOCARCINOMA VIRUS.

Adenomatosis, Pulmonary, Bovine
A cattle disease of uncertain cause, probably an allergic reaction.

Adenomatosis, Pulmonary, Ovine
A contagious, neoplastic, pulmonary disease of sheep characterized by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pneumocytes and epithelial cells of the lung. It is caused by OVINE PULMONARY ADENOCARCINOMA VIRUS.

Adenomatous Polyp
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenomatous polyposis coli
See: APC (meaning 3).

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli
An autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome in which the colon contains few to thousands of adenomatous polyps, often occurring by age 15 to 25.

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.

Adenomatous polyposis coli, autosomal recessive
See: MYH.

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli, Familial
An autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome in which the colon contains few to thousands of adenomatous polyps, often occurring by age 15 to 25.

Adenomatous Polyposis of the Colon
An autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome in which the colon contains few to thousands of adenomatous polyps, often occurring by age 15 to 25.

Adenomatous Polyps
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenomyoma
A nodule that forms around tissue of the inner uterus (endometrial tissue) as a result of adenomyosis. See adenomyosis.

Adenomyomas
A benign neoplasm of muscle (usually smooth muscle) with glandular elements. It occurs most frequently in the uterus and uterine ligaments. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenomyomata
Plural form of adenomyoma.

Adenomyoses
A condition in which tissue more or less perfectly resembling the uterine mucous membrane (the endometrium) and containing typical endometrial granular and stromal elements occurs aberrantly in various locations in the pelvic cavity.

Adenomyosis
Pronounced a-den-o- mi-o-sis, this is a common benign condition of the uterus in which the endometrium (the mucous membrane lining the inside of the uterus) grows into the myometrium (the uterine musculature located just outside the endometrium). The endometrium and myometrium under normal circumstances are adjacent to one another, discrete neighbors. In adenomyosis, the endometrium boorishly implants itself in the myometrium. The myometrium may respond to this intrusion with muscular overgrowth. If an island of endometrial tissue is contained and circumscribed within the myometrium, it forms a nodule called an adenomyoma (plural: adenomyomata). Adenomyosis is made up of adeno (gland) + myo (muscle) + osis (a condition of) = a condition of glandular tissue (referring to the endometrium) in the muscle (the myometrium). Adenomyosis goes by several other names including endometriosis interna, endometriosis uterina, adenomyosis uteri and adenomyometritis.

Adenomyosis uteri
Also known more succinctly as adenomyosis (pronounced ad-den-o-mi-o- sis), this is a common benign condition of the uterus in which the endometrium (the mucous membrane lining the inside of the uterus) grows into the myometrium (the uterine musculature located just outside the endometrium) The endometrium and myometrium under normal circumstances live adjacent to one another as discrete neighbors. In adenomyosis, the endometrium invades the myometrium. The myometrium may respond to this intrusion with muscular overgrowth. If an island of endometrial tissue is contained and circumscribed within the myometrium, it forms a nodule called an adenomyoma (plural: adenomyomata). Adenomyosis is made up of adeno (gland) + myo (muscle) +osis (a condition of) = a condition of glandular tissue (referring to the endometrium) in the muscle (the myometrium). Adenomyosis goes by several other names including endometriosis interna or uterina, and adenomyometritis.

Adenopathy
"Large or ""swollen"" lymph nodes. Synonymous with lymphadenopathy."

Adenophorea
A subclass of nematodes characterized by reduced or absent caudal papillae and an excretory system lacking lateral canals. Its organisms are usually infective to their final host.

Adenophorea Infection
Infections with nematodes of the subclass ADENOPHOREA.

Adenophorea Infections
Infections with nematodes of the subclass ADENOPHOREA.

Adenosarcoma
A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenosarcomas
A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Adenoscan
Adenoscan is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): adenosine .

Adenosine
A nucleoside containing adenine as its base. Adenosine acts to dilate the coronary arteries and is employed in the adenosine thallium scan of the heart.

Adenosine A1 Receptor
A class of cell surface receptors that prefers adenosine to other endogenous purines. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra). The methylxanthines, e.g., caffeine, bind to these receptors, but also have other unrelated effects.

Adenosine A2 Receptor
A class of cell surface receptors that prefers adenosine to other endogenous purines. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra). The methylxanthines, e.g., caffeine, bind to these receptors, but also have other unrelated effects.

Adenosine Aminohydrolase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenosine to inosine with the elimination of ammonia. Since there are wide tissue and species variations in the enzyme, it has been used as a tool in the study of human and animal genetics and in medical diagnosis. EC 3.5.4.4.

Adenosine Cyclic Monophosphate Dependent Protein Kinases
A group of enzymes that are dependent on cyclic AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues on proteins. EC 2.7.10.-.

Adenosine Cyclic Monophosphate-Dependent Protein Kinases
A group of enzymes that are dependent on cyclic AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues on proteins. EC 2.7.10.-.

Adenosine Deaminase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenosine to inosine with the elimination of ammonia. Since there are wide tissue and species variations in the enzyme, it has been used as a tool in the study of human and animal genetics and in medical diagnosis. EC 3.5.4.4.

Adenosine deaminase (ADA)
An enzyme that plays a key role in salvaging purine molecules.

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency
A genetic (inherited) condition that results in a immune deficiency disorder called severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Adenosine deaminase is an enzyme that plays a key role in salvaging purine molecules. ADA deficiency is of special interest in the history of genetics. The first successful instance of gene therapy in humans was carried out in 1990 by Drs. W. French Anderson, R. Michael Blaese and Kenneth W. Culver who infused genetically engineered blood cells to repair ADA deficiency.

Adenosine Deaminase Binding Proteins
Cell-surface glycoproteins and serine protease, also known as dipeptidyl-peptidase IV, that play a role in T-lymphocyte activation. CD26 binds to adenosine deaminase on the T-cell surface. EC 3.4.14.5

Adenosine Deaminase-Binding Proteins
Cell-surface glycoproteins and serine protease, also known as dipeptidyl-peptidase IV, that play a role in T-lymphocyte activation. CD26 binds to adenosine deaminase on the T-cell surface. EC 3.4.14.5

Adenosine Diphosphatase
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.

Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose
Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.

Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of ribose and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate. Serves as a ribose carrier.

Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.

Adenosine Diphosphoglucose
Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.

Adenosine Diphosphoribose
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of ribose and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate. Serves as a ribose carrier.

Adenosine Diphosphoribosyltransferase
An enzyme isolated from the nuclei of a variety of cells. It catalyzes the incorporation of ADP-ribose groups of NAD+ into a homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units. EC 2.4.2.30.

Adenosine Kinase
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.

Adenosine Pyrophosphateglucose
Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.

Adenosine Receptor
A class of cell surface receptors that prefers adenosine to other endogenous purines. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra). The methylxanthines, e.g., caffeine, bind to these receptors, but also have other unrelated effects.

Adenosine Receptors
A class of cell surface receptors that prefers adenosine to other endogenous purines. Purinergic P1 receptors are widespread in the body including the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, and nervous systems. There are at least two pharmacologically distinguishable types (A1 and A2, or Ri and Ra). The methylxanthines, e.g., caffeine, bind to these receptors, but also have other unrelated effects.

Adenosine thallium scan
A method of examining the heart to obtain information about the blood supply to the heart muscle. Special cameras take a series of pictures of the heart. Radioactive thallium is injected into the bloodstream and serves as a tracer. The tracer attaches to certain cells and makes them visible to the special camera. The tracer attaches to the muscle cells of the heart so the imaging camera can take pictures of the heart muscles. If an area of the heart does not receive an adequate flow of blood, the cells in the underserved area do not receive as much tracer and it appears as a darker area on the picture taken by the camera.

Adenosine Triphosphatase
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA. EC 3.6.1.3.

Adenosine Triphosphatase Complex
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.

Adenosine Triphosphatase, Calcium
An enzyme found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicle membrane. During the relaxation of skeletal muscles and muscle rich in mitochondria, this enzyme catalyzes the active transport of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from the sarcoplasm. It requires micromolar concentrations of Ca(2+) and utilizes MgATP as a substrate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). EC 3.6.1.38.

Adenosine Triphosphatase, Calcium, Magnesium
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and is activated by millimolar concentrations of either Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Unlike CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE it does not require the second divalent cation for its activity, and is not sensitive to orthovanadate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). A subgroup of EC 3.6.1.3.

Adenosine Triphosphatase, Dynein
A structural protein which forms the arms on the microtubule doublets of cilia and flagella. In the presence of divalent cations, dynein catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP. This hydrolysis plays an important functional role in the motility process. EC 3.6.1.33.

Adenosine Triphosphatase, Hydrogen, Potassium
An enzyme isolated from the gastric mucosa that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of hydrogen and potassium ions across the cell wall. EC 3.6.1.36.

Adenosine Triphosphatase, Magnesium
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and is activated by millimolar concentrations of either Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Unlike CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE it does not require the second divalent cation for its activity, and is not sensitive to orthovanadate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). A subgroup of EC 3.6.1.3.

Adenosine Triphosphatase, Myosin
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyse MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are are involve in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.

Adenosine Triphosphatase, Sodium, Potassium
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients. EC 3.6.1.37.

Adenosine triphosphate
The primary fuel used by cells to generate the biochemical reactions essential for life.

Adenosine Triphosphate
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Adenosine Triphosphate, Calcium Salt
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Adenosine Triphosphate, Chromium Ammonium Salt
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Adenosine Triphosphate, Chromium Salt
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Adenosine Triphosphate, Magnesium Chloride
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Adenosine Triphosphate, Magnesium Salt
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Adenosine Triphosphate, Manganese Salt
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Adenosine, N6-Ethyl-carboxamido
A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.

Adenosinetriphosphatase
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA. EC 3.6.1.3.

Adenosinetriphosphatase F1
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.

Adenosinetriphosphatase Sodium, Potassium
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients. EC 3.6.1.37.

Adenosinetriphosphatase, Actomyosin
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyse MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are are involve in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.

Adenosinetriphosphatase, Calcium
An enzyme found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicle membrane. During the relaxation of skeletal muscles and muscle rich in mitochondria, this enzyme catalyzes the active transport of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from the sarcoplasm. It requires micromolar concentrations of Ca(2+) and utilizes MgATP as a substrate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). EC 3.6.1.38.

Adenosinetriphosphatase, Calcium Magnesium
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and is activated by millimolar concentrations of either Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Unlike CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE it does not require the second divalent cation for its activity, and is not sensitive to orthovanadate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). A subgroup of EC 3.6.1.3.

Adenosinetriphosphatase, Calcium, Magnesium
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and is activated by millimolar concentrations of either Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Unlike CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE it does not require the second divalent cation for its activity, and is not sensitive to orthovanadate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). A subgroup of EC 3.6.1.3.

Adenosinetriphosphatase, Dynein
A structural protein which forms the arms on the microtubule doublets of cilia and flagella. In the presence of divalent cations, dynein catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP. This hydrolysis plays an important functional role in the motility process. EC 3.6.1.33.

Adenosinetriphosphatase, Hydrogen, Potassium
An enzyme isolated from the gastric mucosa that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of hydrogen and potassium ions across the cell wall. EC 3.6.1.36.

Adenosinetriphosphatase, Magnesium
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and is activated by millimolar concentrations of either Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Unlike CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE it does not require the second divalent cation for its activity, and is not sensitive to orthovanadate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). A subgroup of EC 3.6.1.3.

Adenosinetriphosphatase, Myosin
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyse MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are are involve in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.

Adenosinetriphosphatase, Sodium, Potassium
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients. EC 3.6.1.37.

Adenosis of Breast
A chronic disorder comprising three variants which range from lesions consisting primarily of an overgrowth of fibrous tissue to those characterized by dominance of the proliferation of the epithelial parenchyma to a form of dysplasia characterized by both stromal and epithelial hyperplasia with the formation of cysts.

Adenosquamous Carcinoma
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.

Adenosquamous Carcinomas
A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.

Adenosyltransferase, Methionine
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. EC 2.5.1.6.

Adenoviridae
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.

Adenoviridae Infection
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.

Adenoviridae Infections
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.

Adenovirus
One of the viruses that cause the common cold.

Adenovirus 1, Fowl
The type species of the genus AVIADENOVIRUS, family ADENOVIRIDAE, an oncogenic virus of birds.This is also called CELO virus for chick embryo lethal orphan virus.

Adenovirus 12 Early Region 1B 19K Protein
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of adenovirus which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late gene expression.

Adenovirus Core Protein VII
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.

Adenovirus E1 Proteins
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).

Adenovirus E19 Protein
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.

Adenovirus E19 Proteins
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.

Adenovirus E1A Associated Protein p60
A 33-kD protein identical to adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60. Cyclin A regulates p33cdk2 and p34cdc2, and is necessary for progression through the S phase of the cell cycle.

Adenovirus E1A Protein
Proteins transcribed from the E1A region of adenovirus which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes.

Adenovirus E1A Protein Domain 3
Proteins transcribed from the E1A region of adenovirus which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes.

Adenovirus E1A Proteins
Proteins transcribed from the E1A region of adenovirus which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes.

Adenovirus E1A-Associated Protein p60
A 33-kD protein identical to adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60. Cyclin A regulates p33cdk2 and p34cdc2, and is necessary for progression through the S phase of the cell cycle.

Adenovirus E1B 19K Protein
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of adenovirus which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late gene expression.

Adenovirus E1B Protein
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of adenovirus which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late gene expression.

Adenovirus E1B Proteins
Proteins transcribed from the E1B region of adenovirus which are involved in regulation of the levels of early and late gene expression.

Adenovirus E2 Proteins
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of adenovirus. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.

Adenovirus E29 Protein
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.

Adenovirus E29 Proteins
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.

Adenovirus E2A 72K Protein
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of adenovirus. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.

Adenovirus E2A DNA Binding Proteins
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of adenovirus. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.

Adenovirus E2A DNA-Binding Proteins
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of adenovirus. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.

Adenovirus E2A Proteins
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of adenovirus. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.

Adenovirus E2F Proteins
Proteins transcribed from the E2 region of adenovirus. Several of these are required for viral DNA replication.

Adenovirus E3 19K Protein
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of adenovirus but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.

Adenovirus E3 Proteins
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of adenovirus but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.

Adenovirus E4 Protein
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of adenovirus. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.

Adenovirus E4 Proteins
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of adenovirus. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.

Adenovirus E4F Protein
Proteins transcribed from the E4 region of adenovirus. The E4 19K protein transactivates transcription of the adenovirus E2F protein and complexes with it.

Adenovirus Early Proteins
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.

Adenovirus Early Region Transforming Proteins
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.

Adenovirus Infection
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.

Adenovirus Infection, Human
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.

Adenovirus Infections
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.

Adenovirus Infections, Human
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.

Adenovirus Type 2 E3 19K Protein
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of adenovirus but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.

Adenovirus Type 2 E3-19K Protein
Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of adenovirus but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.

Adenovirus, Avian
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.

Adenovirus, Bovine
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing disease affecting the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems in cattle. Serotypes have been grouped into several different species.

Adenovirus, Canine
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.

Adenovirus, Human
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.

Adenovirus, Mammalian
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects mammals including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).

Adenovirus, Porcine
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.

Adenovirus, Simian
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS associated with respiratory and enteric infections in primate hosts.

Adenoviruses
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.

Adenoviruses, Avian
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects birds. The type species is FOWL ADENOVIRUS A.

Adenoviruses, Bovine
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing disease affecting the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems in cattle. Serotypes have been grouped into several different species.

Adenoviruses, Canine
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.

Adenoviruses, Human
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.

Adenoviruses, Mammalian
A genus of ADENOVIRIDAE that infects mammals including humans and causes a wide range of diseases. The type species is Human adenovirus C (see ADENOVIRUSES, HUMAN).

Adenoviruses, Porcine
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.

Adenoviruses, Simian
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS associated with respiratory and enteric infections in primate hosts.

Adensoine
Adensoine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): adenosine .

Adenyl Cyclase
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.

Adenylate Cyclase
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.

Adenylate Cyclase Regulatory Proteins
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The G-alpha subunit acts as a signal transduction molecule when it binds GTP and dissociates from the heterotrimer. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the protein causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. EC 3.6.1.-.

Adenylate Cyclase Toxin
Any of various biologically active proteins or toxins elaborated by Bordetella pertussis that cause the symptoms of whooping cough. Some activate pancreatic islets, others inhibit the adenylate cyclase cascade and some cause lymphocytosis.

Adenylate Deaminase
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP. EC 3.5.4.6.

Adenylate Kinase
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.

Adenylokinase
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.

Adenylosuccinate Synthase
A carbon-nitrogen ligase. During purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of adenylosuccinate from GTP; IMP; and aspartate with the formation of orthophosphate and GDP. EC 6.3.4.4.

Adenylosuccinate Synthetase
A carbon-nitrogen ligase. During purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of adenylosuccinate from GTP; IMP; and aspartate with the formation of orthophosphate and GDP. EC 6.3.4.4.

Adenylpyrophosphate
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Adenylyl Cyclase
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.

Adenylyldeoxyribonucleosides
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.

Adenylyltransferase, ATP-NMN
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC 2.7.7.1.

Adenylyltransferase, ATP-RNA
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.19). EC 2.7.7.19.

Adenylyltransferase, Nicotinamide Mononucleotide
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC 2.7.7.1.

Adenylyltransferase, Nicotinamide-Nucleotide
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC 2.7.7.1.

Adenylyltransferase, NMN
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of the adenylyl moiety of ATP to the phosphoryl group of NMN to form NAD+ and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is found predominantly in the nuclei and catalyzes the final reaction in the major pathway for the biosynthesis of NAD in mammals. EC 2.7.7.1.

Adenylyltransferase, Polynucleotide
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.19). EC 2.7.7.19.



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Acoustic
Having to do with sound and hearing.

Acromegaly
A condition that occurs when the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone. In adults, this can cause overgrowth of bones that occurs in smaller bones, such as those in the jaw, hands and feet. In children or teenagers, this can cause giantism.

Actinic keratoses
Scaly, pink, gray or tan patches or bumps on the face or scalp, or on the back of the hands. Occur mostly on people who have light skin that has been damaged by the sun.

Acute
1. Of short course. 2. Severe, but of a short duration. Not chronic.

Addiction
Strong dependence or habitual use of a substance or practice, despite the negative consequences of its use.

Adenoids

Adenovirus
One of the viruses that cause the common cold.

ADH
Antidiuretic hormone. One of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland. A shortage of this hormone causes increased loss of body fluids through the kidneys.

Aerobic
Requiring the use of oxygen. Exercise that conditions the heart and lungs by increasing the efficiency of oxygen intake by the body.

Airway
The passage by which air enters and exits the lungs.

Albino
A person with albinism.

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