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  Acute



Acute

   1. Of short course. 2. Severe, but of a short duration. Not chronic.

RELATED TERMS
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Chronic
Ongoing or recurring. Chronic medical conditions include diabetes, epilepsy, and chronic fatigue syndrome.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Acute abdomen
The abrupt (acute) onset of abdominal pain. A potential medical emergency, an acute abdomen may reflect a major problem with one of the organs in the abdomen such as the appendix (being inflamed = appendicitis), the gallbladder (inflamed = cholecystitis), the intestine (an ulcer that has perforated), the spleen (that has ruptured), etc. The term "acute abdomen" is medical shorthand. It has nonetheless come into common usage in medical parlance.

Acute Abdomen
Clinical syndrome characterized by abdominal pain of great severity associated with other symptoms and signs, usually those of acute peritonitis, which might well be the result of a ruptured abdominal viscus or a similar abdominal catastrophe requiring urgent surgical operation.

Acute Abdomens
Clinical syndrome characterized by abdominal pain of great severity associated with other symptoms and signs, usually those of acute peritonitis, which might well be the result of a ruptured abdominal viscus or a similar abdominal catastrophe requiring urgent surgical operation.

Acute Articular Rheumatism
A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with group A hemolytic streptococci and characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, especially of the heart, blood vessels, and joints (polyarthritis), and by the presence of Aschoff bodies in the myocardium and skin. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Acute Articular Rheumatisms
A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with group A hemolytic streptococci and characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, especially of the heart, blood vessels, and joints (polyarthritis), and by the presence of Aschoff bodies in the myocardium and skin. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Acute Autoimmune Neuropathies
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

Acute Autoimmune Neuropathy
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

Acute bacterial prostatitis
Inflammation of the prostate gland of sudden (acute) onset due to bacterial infection. The symptoms include chills, fever, pain in the lower back and genital area, body aches, burning or painful urination, and the frequent and urgent need to urinate. The urinary tract is infected, as evidenced by the presence of white blood cells and bacteria in the urine. Treatment is with antibiotics. The prostate, a small organ about the size of a walnut, is below the bladder (where urine is stored) and surrounds the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder). The prostate normally produces a fluid that becomes part of the semen.

Acute Brain Injuries
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.

Acute Brain Injury
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.

Acute brain syndrome
See: Delirium.

Acute Cerebrovascular Accident
A sudden, nonconvulsive loss of neurologic function due to an ischemic or hemorrhagic intracranial vascular event. In general, cerebrovascular accidents are classified by anatomic location in the brain, vascular distribution, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. nonhemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

Acute Cerebrovascular Accidents
A sudden, nonconvulsive loss of neurologic function due to an ischemic or hemorrhagic intracranial vascular event. In general, cerebrovascular accidents are classified by anatomic location in the brain, vascular distribution, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. nonhemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

Acute Confusional Migraine
A subtype of vascular headaches characterized by periodic unilateral pulsatile headaches which begin in childhood, adolescence, or early adult life and recur with diminishing frequency during advancing years. The two major subtypes are CLASSIC MIGRAINE (i.e., migraine with aura) and COMMON MIGRAINE (i.e., migraine without aura). Migrainous episodes may be associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p172)

Acute Confusional Migraines
A subtype of vascular headaches characterized by periodic unilateral pulsatile headaches which begin in childhood, adolescence, or early adult life and recur with diminishing frequency during advancing years. The two major subtypes are CLASSIC MIGRAINE (i.e., migraine with aura) and COMMON MIGRAINE (i.e., migraine without aura). Migrainous episodes may be associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p172)

Acute Confusional Senile Dementia
A degenerative disease of the brain characterized by the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgement, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)

Acute confusional state
See: Delirium.

Acute coronary syndromes
A spectrum of conditions involving chest discomfort or other symptoms caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle (the myocardium). The unification of these manifestations of coronary artery disease under a single term reflects the understanding that these are caused by a similar pathophysiology (sequence of pathologic events) characterized by erosion, fissuring, or rupture of a pre-existing plaque, leading to thrombosis (clotting) within the coronary arteries and impaired blood supply to the heart muscle.

Acute Coryza
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral, a mixed infection, or an allergic reaction. It is marked by acute coryza, slight rise in temperature, chilly sensations, and general indisposition. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Acute Disease
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

Acute Diseases
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitides
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)

Acute epiglottitis
"A very rapidly progressive infection causing inflammation of the epiglottis (the flap that covers the trachea) and tissues around the epiglottis that may lead to abrupt blockage of the upper airway and death. The infection is usually caused by bacteria (such as Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococci) and is contracted through the respiratory tract. Subsequent downward extension produces what is called cellulitis with marked inflammation of the epiglottis and nearby structures. The inflamed epiglottis mechanically obstructs the airway; the work of breathing increases, and the retention of carbon dioxide and hypoxia (low oxygen) may result. Clearance of secretions is also impaired. These factors may result in fatal asphyxia within a few hours. "

Acute Erythroblastic Leukemia
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.

Acute Erythroblastic Leukemias
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy
Liver failure in late pregnancy, usually from unknown cause. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) typically occurs in first-time pregnancies in the last trimester. AFLP causes nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain especially in the upper abdomen (epigastrium), jaundice (yellowing), frequent thirst (polydipsia) and increased urination (polyuria), fatigue, headache, and altered mental state.

Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitides
A highly contagious disease characterized by subconjunctival hemorrhage, sudden swelling of the eyelids and congestion, redness, and pain in the eye. Epidemic conjunctivitis caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV-70) was first described in Africa in 1969. It is caused also by Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v). Epidemics by this organism have appeared most frequently in Asia.

Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis
A highly contagious disease characterized by subconjunctival hemorrhage, sudden swelling of the eyelids and congestion, redness, and pain in the eye. Epidemic conjunctivitis caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV-70) was first described in Africa in 1969. It is caused also by Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v). Epidemics by this organism have appeared most frequently in Asia.

Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitides
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Acute Hepatic Failure
A form of liver failure with rapid onset. It is often induced by the toxic effect of drugs and various toxic substances in experimental studies in animals and in clinical states in humans. If coma ensues, the constellation of neurological symptoms is referred to as HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY.

Acute Idiopathic Facial Neuropathy
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Acute idiopathic polyneuritis
Also known as the Guillain-Barre syndrome, a disorder characterized by progressive symmetrical paralysis and loss of reflexes, usually beginning in the leg, with in most cases nearly complete or complete recovery. The Guillain-Barre syndrome is not associated with fever. There is paralysis involving more than one limb, most commonly the legs, and that paralysis is progressive. There is areflexia (loss of reflexes) or hyporeflexia (diminution of reflexes) in the legs and arms. Other conditions that may mimic the Guillain-Barre syndrome need to be ruled out. The Guillain-Barre syndrome is due to an immune response that results in the direct destruction of the myelin sheath surrounding the peripheral nerves or the axon of the nerve itself. The syndrome sometimes follow triggering events, including vaccinations. Among the vaccines reportedly associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome are the swine influenza vaccine (in 1976-1977), the oral poliovirus vaccine, and tetanus toxoid. Aside from vaccinations, infection with the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and viral infections can trigger the Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Acute illness
A disease with an abrupt onset and usually a short course.

Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

Acute Inflammatory Facial Neuropathy
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Acute Inflammatory Polyneuropathies
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

Acute Inflammatory Polyneuropathy
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

Acute Inflammatory Polyradiculoneuropathies
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

Acute Inflammatory Polyradiculoneuropathy
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

Acute Intermittent Porphyria
A form of hepatic porphyria (PORPHYRIA, HEPATIC) characterized by periodic attacks of gastrointestinal disturbances, abdominal colic, paralyses, and psychiatric disorders. The onset of this condition is usually in the third or fourth decade of life.

Acute Intermittent Porphyrias
A form of hepatic porphyria (PORPHYRIA, HEPATIC) characterized by periodic attacks of gastrointestinal disturbances, abdominal colic, paralyses, and psychiatric disorders. The onset of this condition is usually in the third or fourth decade of life.

Acute kidney failure
See: Acute renal failure.

Acute Kidney Failure
A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, often to values of less than 1 to 2 ml per minute. It is usually associated with oliguria (urine volumes of less than 400 ml per day) and is always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations.

Acute Kidney Failures
A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, often to values of less than 1 to 2 ml per minute. It is usually associated with oliguria (urine volumes of less than 400 ml per day) and is always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations.

Acute Kidney Insufficiencies
A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, often to values of less than 1 to 2 ml per minute. It is usually associated with oliguria (urine volumes of less than 400 ml per day) and is always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations.

Acute Kidney Insufficiency
A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, often to values of less than 1 to 2 ml per minute. It is usually associated with oliguria (urine volumes of less than 400 ml per day) and is always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations.

Acute Kidney Tubular Necrosis
Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of tubular epithelial cells. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ischemia following severe trauma.

Acute Laryngotracheo-Bronchitis Virus
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.

Acute Laryngotracheo-Bronchitis Viruses
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.

Acute Laryngotracheobronchitis Virus
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.

Acute Laryngotracheobronchitis Viruses
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.

Acute leukemia
Cancer of the white blood cells (leukemia) that characteristically comes on abruptly and, if not treated, progresses rapidly. The two major types of acute leukemia are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML).

Acute Liver Failure
A form of liver failure with rapid onset. It is often induced by the toxic effect of drugs and various toxic substances in experimental studies in animals and in clinical states in humans. If coma ensues, the constellation of neurological symptoms is referred to as HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY.

Acute Lung Injuries
A syndrome of life-threatening progressive pulmonary insufficiency in the absence of known pulmonary disease, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major trauma.

Acute Lung Injury
A syndrome of life-threatening progressive pulmonary insufficiency in the absence of known pulmonary disease, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major trauma.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
"An acute (sudden onset), rapidly progressing form of leukemia that is characterized by the presence in the blood and bone marrow of large numbers of unusually immature white blood cells destined to become lymphocytes. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is also called acute lymphocytic leukemia and is abbreviated ALL (spoken not as the word ""all"", but as the three letters A-L-L). ALL is the most common cancer occurring in children, representing almost 25% of cancer among children. There is a sharp peak in the incidence of ALL incidence among children ages 2 to 3. This peak is approximately fourfold greater than that for infants and is nearly 10-fold greater than that for youths who are 19 years old."

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Lymphocytic leukemia where cells show little differentiation. There are three major subgroups (FAB L1, L2, & L3) based on distinguishing characteristics of the blast cells. Adult and childhood forms of the disease show biological differences as well.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias
Lymphocytic leukemia where cells show little differentiation. There are three major subgroups (FAB L1, L2, & L3) based on distinguishing characteristics of the blast cells. Adult and childhood forms of the disease show biological differences as well.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia
See: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Lymphocytic leukemia where cells show little differentiation. There are three major subgroups (FAB L1, L2, & L3) based on distinguishing characteristics of the blast cells. Adult and childhood forms of the disease show biological differences as well.

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemias
Lymphocytic leukemia where cells show little differentiation. There are three major subgroups (FAB L1, L2, & L3) based on distinguishing characteristics of the blast cells. Adult and childhood forms of the disease show biological differences as well.

Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia
Nonlymphocytic leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. Myelofibrosis or increased bone marrow reticulin is common.

Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemias
Nonlymphocytic leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. Myelofibrosis or increased bone marrow reticulin is common.

Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia
Nonlymphocytic leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. Myelofibrosis or increased bone marrow reticulin is common.

Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemias
Nonlymphocytic leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. Myelofibrosis or increased bone marrow reticulin is common.

Acute mountain sickness (AMS)
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is the effect on the body of being in a high altitude environment. AMS is common at high altitudes, that is above 8,000 feet (2,440 meters). Three-quarters of people have mild symptoms of AMS over 10,000 feet (3,048 meters). The occurrence of AMS depends on the altitude, the rate of ascent, and individual susceptibility.

Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia
Progressive, malignant disease of the myeloid tissue in which the granular, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their precursors predominate.

Acute Myeloblastic Leukemias
Progressive, malignant disease of the myeloid tissue in which the granular, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their precursors predominate.

Acute Myelocytic Leukemia
Progressive, malignant disease of the myeloid tissue in which the granular, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their precursors predominate.

Acute Myelocytic Leukemias
Progressive, malignant disease of the myeloid tissue in which the granular, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their precursors predominate.

Acute myelogenous leukemia
Abbreviated AML. Also called acute myeloid leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). A quickly progressive malignant disease in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow, the cells being specifically those destined to give rise to the granulocytes or monocytes, both types of white blood cells that fight infections. In AML, these blasts do not mature and so become too numerous. AML can occur in adults or children.

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Progressive, malignant disease of the myeloid tissue in which the granular, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their precursors predominate.

Acute Myelogenous Leukemias
Progressive, malignant disease of the myeloid tissue in which the granular, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their precursors predominate.

Acute myeloid leukemia
A quickly progressive malignant disease in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow, the cells being specifically those destined to give rise to the granulocytes or monocytes, both types of white blood cells that fight infections. In AML, these blasts do not mature and so become too numerous. AML can occur in adults or children. Acute myeloid leukemia is abbreviated AML (pronounced A M L). It is also known as acute myelogenous leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL).

Acute myocardial infarction
This is the medical term for a heart attack. It literally means sudden death of heart muscle. This is normally caused by atherosclerosis. Also called an AMI, Coronary or MI.

Acute Necrotizing Encephalitides
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Acute Necrotizing Encephalitis
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Acute Necrotizing Encephalitis, Herpetic
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)

Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis
Acute inflammation of the pancreas with areas of devitalized pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue. These necrotic areas may involve large areas of the pancreas or may be small. When a CT scan is performed with contrast media using a bolus technique, necrotic areas do not perfuse with media and are not enhanced. The lack of enhancement distinguishes necrotic tissue from the adjacent well-perfused viable pancreatic parenchyma. (From Liang et al., Pancreas: Biology, Pathobiology, & Disease, 2d ed, p597)

Acute Necrotizing Pyelonephritides
A form of acute kidney disease characterized by necrosis of the renal papillae. It is most frequently associated with diabetes mellitus because of the severe vascular disease present in the arteries and capillaries, particularly in the kidney. There is usually a large component of infection present, and in non-diabetics pyelonephritis and obstructive uropathy are the usual etiologic agents.

Acute Necrotizing Pyelonephritis
A form of acute kidney disease characterized by necrosis of the renal papillae. It is most frequently associated with diabetes mellitus because of the severe vascular disease present in the arteries and capillaries, particularly in the kidney. There is usually a large component of infection present, and in non-diabetics pyelonephritis and obstructive uropathy are the usual etiologic agents.

Acute Neuronopathic Gaucher Disease
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Acute Nonlymphoblastic Leukemia
Acute leukemia distinguished from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) by the morphology of the marrow and blood leukemic cells. Cytoplasmic granules are usually present and the nucleus is usually large and irregular. ANLL is more common in adults than ALL and occurs at any age.

Acute Nonlymphoblastic Leukemias
Acute leukemia distinguished from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) by the morphology of the marrow and blood leukemic cells. Cytoplasmic granules are usually present and the nucleus is usually large and irregular. ANLL is more common in adults than ALL and occurs at any age.

Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia
Abbreviated ANLL. More commonly called acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A quickly progressive malignant disease in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells in the blood and bone marrow, the cells being specifically those destined to give rise to the granulocytes or monocytes, both types of white blood cells that fight infections. In AML, these blasts do not mature and so become too numerous. AML can occur in adults or children.

Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia
Acute leukemia distinguished from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) by the morphology of the marrow and blood leukemic cells. Cytoplasmic granules are usually present and the nucleus is usually large and irregular. ANLL is more common in adults than ALL and occurs at any age.

Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemias
Acute leukemia distinguished from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) by the morphology of the marrow and blood leukemic cells. Cytoplasmic granules are usually present and the nucleus is usually large and irregular. ANLL is more common in adults than ALL and occurs at any age.

Acute Nonsuppurative Periodontitides
Inflammation of the periapical tissue. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.

Acute Nonsuppurative Periodontitis
Inflammation of the periapical tissue. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.

Acute Onset Aura Migraine
A condition characterized by throbbing headaches which are preceded or accompanied by reversible symptoms that reflect cortical or brain stem dysfunction. The most common type of aura consists of a positive visual phenomenon, usually in the form of a scintillating scotoma. An aura may also take the form of other focal neurologic symptoms or signs, including loss of sensation or weakness in an extremity. In general, the aura precedes the headache by less than 60 minutes, develops over 4 minutes or longer, and has a duration of less than one hour. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p172; Cephalalgia 1988;8:Suppl 7:1-96)

Acute Onset Vascular Dementia
An imprecise term refering to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)

Acute otitis media
" Inflammation of the middle ear in which there is fluid in the middle ear accompanied by signs or symptoms of ear infection: a bulging eardrum usually accompanied by pain; or a perforated eardrum, often with drainage of purulent material (pus). Acute otitis media is the most frequent diagnosis in sick children in the U.S., especially affecting infants and preschoolers. Almost all children have one or more bouts of otitis media before age 6."

Acute pain
Pain that comes on quickly, can be severe, but lasts a relatively short time. As opposed to chronic pain.

Acute Pain Service
Facilities providing diagnostic, therapeutic, and palliative services for patients with severe chronic pain. These may be free-standing clinics or hospital-based and serve ambulatory or inpatient populations. The approach is usually multidisciplinary. These clinics are often referred to as ""acute pain services"". (From Br Med Bull 1991 Jul;47(3):762-85)

Acute Pain Services
Facilities providing diagnostic, therapeutic, and palliative services for patients with severe chronic pain. These may be free-standing clinics or hospital-based and serve ambulatory or inpatient populations. The approach is usually multidisciplinary. These clinics are often referred to as ""acute pain services"". (From Br Med Bull 1991 Jul;47(3):762-85)

Acute pancreatitis
Sudden inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas abruptly becomes inflamed and then gets better. Some people have more than one attack but recover fully after each one. The cause of acute pancreatitis is most often alcohol abuse or gallstones. Other causes include use of prescribed drugs, trauma or surgery to the abdomen, or abnormalities of the pancreas or intestine. In rare cases, the disease may result from infections, such as mumps. In about 1 case in 6 or 7, the cause is unknown.

Acute Peripheral Vestibulopathies
Idiopathic inflammation of the vestibular nerve, characterized clinically by the acute or subacute onset of vertigo, nausea, and imbalance. The cochlear nerve is typically spared and hearing loss and tinnitus do not usually occur. Symptoms usually resolve over a period of days to weeks. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p304)

Acute Peripheral Vestibulopathy
Idiopathic inflammation of the vestibular nerve, characterized clinically by the acute or subacute onset of vertigo, nausea, and imbalance. The cochlear nerve is typically spared and hearing loss and tinnitus do not usually occur. Symptoms usually resolve over a period of days to weeks. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p304)

Acute Phase alpha 1 Protein
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.

Acute Phase Glycoproteins
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.

Acute phase protein
See: Acute-phase protein.

Acute Phase Protein
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.

Acute Phase Proteins
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.

Acute phase reactant
See: Acute-phase protein.

Acute Phase Reactants
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.

Acute Phase Reaction
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.

Acute Phase State
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.

Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.

Acute Pityriasis Lichenoides
A subgroup of PARAPSORIASIS itself divided into acute and chronic forms. The acute form is characterized by the abrupt onset of a generalized, reddish-brown, maculopapular eruption. Lesions may be vesicular, hemorrhagic, crusted, or necrotic. Histologically the disease is characterized by epidermal necrolysis. The chronic form shows milder skin changes with necrosis. An important variant of the chronic form is LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS.

Acute Poliomyelitis
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)

Acute Poliomyelitis, Epidemic
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)

Acute Porphyria
A form of hepatic porphyria (PORPHYRIA, HEPATIC) characterized by periodic attacks of gastrointestinal disturbances, abdominal colic, paralyses, and psychiatric disorders. The onset of this condition is usually in the third or fourth decade of life.

Acute Porphyrias
A form of hepatic porphyria (PORPHYRIA, HEPATIC) characterized by periodic attacks of gastrointestinal disturbances, abdominal colic, paralyses, and psychiatric disorders. The onset of this condition is usually in the third or fourth decade of life.

Acute promyelocytic leukemia
"Commonly called APL, a malignancy of the bone marrow in which there is a deficiency of mature blood cells in the myeloid line of cells and an excess of immature cells called promyelocytes. APL is due to a translocation (an exchange of chromosome material) between chromosomes 15 and 17 which is symbolized t(15;17). This translocation is not a mere marker of APL. It is the cause of APL. APL was first recognized as a distinct disease entity in 1957. It accounts for 5-10% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The peak incidence of APL is in young adults. APL is considered a type of AML and is classified as the M3 variant of AML in the internationally accepted French-American-British (FAB) Classification. "

Acute radiation syndrome
An acute illness caused by a dose greater than 50 rads of penetrating radiation to most or all of the body in a short time, usually a matter of minutes. Examples of persons who suffered from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) are the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and the firefighters that first responded after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant event in 1986. A person with ARS usually goes through four stages. In the prodromal stage, the classic symptoms are nausea, vomiting, and possibly diarrhea (depending on dose) that occur from minutes to days following exposure. These symptoms may last (episodically) for minutes up to several days. Then comes the latent stage. In this stage the patient looks and feels generally healthy for a few hours or even up to a few weeks. Then comes the overt or manifest illness stage, In this stage the symptoms depend on the specific ARS syndrome and last from hours up to several months. The last stage is recovery or death. Most patients who do not recover die within several months of exposure. For those who recover, the process lasts from several weeks up to two years.

Acute Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)

Acute renal failure
Sudden and often temporary loss of kidney function. Also called acute kidney failure. As opposed to chronic renal failure.

Acute Renal Failure
A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, often to values of less than 1 to 2 ml per minute. It is usually associated with oliguria (urine volumes of less than 400 ml per day) and is always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations.

Acute Renal Failures
A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, often to values of less than 1 to 2 ml per minute. It is usually associated with oliguria (urine volumes of less than 400 ml per day) and is always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations.

Acute Renal Insufficiencies
A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, often to values of less than 1 to 2 ml per minute. It is usually associated with oliguria (urine volumes of less than 400 ml per day) and is always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations.

Acute Renal Insufficiency
A clinical syndrome characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, often to values of less than 1 to 2 ml per minute. It is usually associated with oliguria (urine volumes of less than 400 ml per day) and is always associated with biochemical consequences of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate such as a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations.

Acute respiratory disease
A sudden condition in which breathing is difficult and the oxygen levels in the blood abruptly drop lower than normal.

Acute Respiratory Disease Viruses
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Better known as ARDS. See: ARDS.

Acute Retinal Necroses
Mild to fulminant necrotizing vaso-occlusive retinitis associated with a high incidence of retinal detachment and poor vision outcome.

Acute Retinal Necrosis
Mild to fulminant necrotizing vaso-occlusive retinitis associated with a high incidence of retinal detachment and poor vision outcome.

Acute Rheumatic Arthritides
A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with group A hemolytic streptococci and characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, especially of the heart, blood vessels, and joints (polyarthritis), and by the presence of Aschoff bodies in the myocardium and skin. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Acute Rheumatic Arthritis
A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with group A hemolytic streptococci and characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, especially of the heart, blood vessels, and joints (polyarthritis), and by the presence of Aschoff bodies in the myocardium and skin. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Acute stress disorder
The anxiety and behavioral disturbances that develop within a month of exposure to extreme trauma. The symptoms of an acute stress disorder usually begin during or shortly following the trauma. Such extreme traumatic events include rape or other severe physical assault, near-death experiences in accidents, witnessing a murder, and combat. The symptom of dissociation, which reflects a perceived detachment of the mind from the emotional state or even the body, is a critical feature. Dissociation also is characterized by a sense of the world as a dreamlike or unreal place and may be accompanied by poor memory of the specific events, which in severe form is known as dissociative amnesia. Other features of acute stress disorder include symptoms of generalized anxiety and hyperarousal, avoidance of situations or stimuli that elicit memories of the trauma, and persistent, intrusive recollections of the event via flashbacks, dreams, or recurrent thoughts or visual images. If the symptoms and behavioral disturbances of the acute stress disorder persist for more than a month, and if these features are associated with functional impairment or significant distress to the sufferer, the diagnosis is changed to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Acute Stroke
A sudden, nonconvulsive loss of neurologic function due to an ischemic or hemorrhagic intracranial vascular event. In general, cerebrovascular accidents are classified by anatomic location in the brain, vascular distribution, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. nonhemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

Acute Strokes
A sudden, nonconvulsive loss of neurologic function due to an ischemic or hemorrhagic intracranial vascular event. In general, cerebrovascular accidents are classified by anatomic location in the brain, vascular distribution, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. nonhemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

Acute Subdural Hematoma
Hemorrhage and accumulation of blood in the subdural space associated with the acute onset of neurologic deficits, usually following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Hematoma formation occurs most frequently over the lateral and superior aspects of a cerebral hemisphere, but may also occur in the posterior fossa and spinal canal. Clinical manifestations may include hemiparesis, SEIZURES, third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES), mental status changes, and COMA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p886)

Acute Subdural Hematomas
Hemorrhage and accumulation of blood in the subdural space associated with the acute onset of neurologic deficits, usually following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Hematoma formation occurs most frequently over the lateral and superior aspects of a cerebral hemisphere, but may also occur in the posterior fossa and spinal canal. Clinical manifestations may include hemiparesis, SEIZURES, third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES), mental status changes, and COMA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p886)

Acute thrombocytopenic purpura
The sudden onset of low blood platelet levels with bleeding into the skin and elsewhere. Acute thrombocytopenic purpura (ATP) can be due to many causes. It may, for example, constitute a potentially serious complication during the acute phase of measles.

Acute Toxicity Test
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.

Acute Toxicity Tests
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.

Acute Transverse Myelitis
Inflammation of a transverse portion of the spinal cord characterized by acute or subacute segmental demyelination or necrosis. The condition may occur sporadically, follow an infection or vaccination, or present as a paraneoplastic syndrome (see also ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED). Clinical manifestations include motor weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1242-6)

Acute tubular necrosis
A severe form of acute renal failure that develops in people with severe illnesses (such as sepsis) or with very low blood pressure. Patients may need dialysis. Kidney function often improves if the underlying disease is successfully treated. Abbreviated ATN.

Acute Vestibular Neuritides
Idiopathic inflammation of the vestibular nerve, characterized clinically by the acute or subacute onset of vertigo, nausea, and imbalance. The cochlear nerve is typically spared and hearing loss and tinnitus do not usually occur. Symptoms usually resolve over a period of days to weeks. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p304)

Acute Vestibular Neuritis
Idiopathic inflammation of the vestibular nerve, characterized clinically by the acute or subacute onset of vertigo, nausea, and imbalance. The cochlear nerve is typically spared and hearing loss and tinnitus do not usually occur. Symptoms usually resolve over a period of days to weeks. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p304)

Acute-Phase alpha 1-Protein
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.

Acute-Phase Glycoproteins
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.

Acute-phase protein
Any protein whose plasma concentration increases (or decreases) by 25% or more during certain inflammatory disorders. The acute-phase proteins include C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Perhaps the best known of these acute-phase proteins is CRP, a plasma protein that rises in the blood with inflammation. The level of CRP in blood plasma can rise as high as 1000-fold with inflammation. Conditions that commonly lead to marked changes in CRP include infection, trauma, surgery, burns, inflammatory conditions, and advanced cancer. Moderate changes occur after strenuous exercise, heatstroke, and childbirth. Small changes in CRP occur after psychological stress and in several psychiatric illnesses. C-reactive protein is a test of value. Marked rises in CRP reflect the presence and intensity of inflammation. An elevation in CRP, however, is not a telltale sign pointing to just one disease. Also called an acute-phase reactant.

Acute-Phase Protein
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.

Acute-phase proteins
See: Acute-phase protein.

Acute-Phase Proteins
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.

Acute-phase reactant
See: Acute-phase protein.

Acute-Phase Reactants
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.

Acute-Phase Reaction
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.

Acute-Phase Response
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.

Acute-Phase State
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.

Acutect
Acutect is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) legal in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m apcitide.



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Acclimation
The process of getting used to a new climate or altitude.

Acidosis
An abnormal condition in the body in which excessive acid lowers the pH of the blood and body tissues.

Acoustic
Having to do with sound and hearing.

Acromegaly
A condition that occurs when the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone. In adults, this can cause overgrowth of bones that occurs in smaller bones, such as those in the jaw, hands and feet. In children or teenagers, this can cause giantism.

Actinic keratoses
Scaly, pink, gray or tan patches or bumps on the face or scalp, or on the back of the hands. Occur mostly on people who have light skin that has been damaged by the sun.

Acute

Addiction
Strong dependence or habitual use of a substance or practice, despite the negative consequences of its use.

Adenoids
Glandular tissue in the back of the throat that may swell, especially during childhood, obstruct breathing and speaking, and lead to ear infections.

Adenovirus
One of the viruses that cause the common cold.

ADH
Antidiuretic hormone. One of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland. A shortage of this hormone causes increased loss of body fluids through the kidneys.

Aerobic
Requiring the use of oxygen. Exercise that conditions the heart and lungs by increasing the efficiency of oxygen intake by the body.

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